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124 terms

Chapter 1

The Human Body: An Orientation
STUDY
PLAY
Directly causes mechanical motion
Muscular system
Responds to environmental changes by transmitting electrical impulses
Nervous system
Provides support and levers for muscles to work on
Skeletal system
Protects underlying organs from mechanical damage
Integumentary system
Controls the body with chemical molecules called hormones
Endocrine system
Delivers oxygen and nutrients to the tissues
Cardiovascular system
Produces antibodies that neutralize foreign substances
Immune system
Removes and filters excess fluid from tissues
Lymphatic system
Feedback mechanism:
Blood glucose levels
Negative feedback
Feedback mechanism:
Blood pressure
Negative feedback
Feedback mechanism:
Blood clotting
Positive feedback
Feedback mechanism:
Delivering a baby
Positive feedback
Systems and organs:
Arteries, veins, heart
Cardiovascular
Systems and organs:
Trachea, bronchi, alveoli
Respiratory
Systems and organs:
Adrenal glands, pancreas, pituitary
Endocrine
Systems and organs:
Esophagus, large intestine, rectum
Digestive
Systems and organs:
Kidneys, bladder, ureters
Urinary
Cavities and organs:
Stomach
Abdominopelvic
Cavities and organs:
Heart
Thoracic
Cavities and organs:
Uterus
Abdominopelvic
Cavities and organs:
Brain
Cranial
Cavities and organs:
Lungs
Thoracic
Regional terms and common terms:
Arm
Brachial
Regional terms and common terms:
Buttock
Gluteal
Regional terms and common terms:
Head
Cephalic
Regional terms and common terms:
Knee (anterior aspect)
Patellar
Regional terms and common terms:
Chest
Thoracic
The bridge of the nose is _______ to the left eye
Medial
The upper arm is ________ to the forearm
Proximal
The heart is ________ to the stomach
Superior
The fingers are _________ to the wrist
Distal
The stomach is _________ to the spine
Anterior
Positive feedback mechanisms tend to increase the original stimulus
True
Imaging is useful in discovering obstructed blood supplies in organs and tissues
True
The anatomical position means the body is standing at attention with the palms facing forward and the thumbs pointing away from the body
True
The elbow is proximal to the shoulder
False
The serous membrane that lines the peritoneal cavity wall is called the visceral peritoneum
False
A major function of serous membranes is to decrease friction
True
The right hypochondriac region contains the majority of the stomach
False
Lungs carry out an excretory function
True
Embryology concerns the structural changes that occur in an individual from conception through old age
False
A tissue consists of groups of similar cells that have a common function
True
It is important for any organism to maintain its boundaries, so that its internal environment remains distinct from the external environment surrounding it
True
Without some sort of negative feedback mechanism, it would be impossible to keep our body chemistry in balance
True
Regardless of the variable being regulated, all homeostatic control mechanisms have at least three interdependent components
True
The epigastric region is located superior to the umbilical region
True
Histology would be best defined as a study of
Tissues
The study of the heart may incorporate many aspects of anatomy but as a whole you would say it is _________ anatomy.
Systemic
An increased rate of breathing as a result of an increased buildup of carbon dioxide in the bloodstream would be best described as an example of ________
Excretion of metabolic waste
Average body temperature is ________ degrees centigrade
37
If you consider your home air conditioner in terms of homeostasis, then the wall thermostat would be the _______
Control center
What is the main, general purpose of negative feedback?
To maintain homeostasis
What is the specific name for the hip region?
Coxal
An oblique cut is one that is cut
Diagonally between the vertical and horizontal
The heart lies in the _______ cavity
Pericardial
The cavities housing the eyes are called ______ cavities
Orbital
A structure that is composed of two or more tissues would be a(n)
Organ
________ cavities are spaces within joints
Synovial
Which of the following would not be a functional characteristic of life?
Decay
Which term means toward or at the back of the body, behind?
Dorsal
The single most abundant chemical substance of the body, accounting for 60% to 80% of body weight is ________
Water
What is the posterior side of the patella called?
Popliteal
Which of the following statements is true concerning feedback mechanisms?
A. Positive feedback mechanisms always result in excessive damage to the host
B. Negative feedback mechanisms tend to increase the original stimulus
C. Negative feedback mechanisms work to prevent sudden severe changes within the body
D. Blood glucose levels are regulated by positive feedback mechanisms
Negative feedback mechanisms work to prevent sudden severe changes within the body
The anatomical position is characterized by all of the following except
A. Body erect
B. Arms at sides
C. Palms turned posteriorly
D. Thumbs pointed laterally
Palms turned posteriorly
A good example of a positive feedback mechanism would be
A. Body temperature regulation
B. Regulating glucose levels in the blood
C. Enhancement of labor contractions
D. Blood calcium level regulation
Enhancement of labor contractions
Which of the following describes a parasagittal plane?
A. A transverse cut just above the knees
B. Two cuts dividing the body into left and right halves
C. Any sagittal plane except the median
D. Any cut dividing the body into anterior and posterior
Any sagittal plane except the median
Which of the following organs or structures would be found in the left iliac region?
Intestines
The parietal pleural would represent a serous membrane ________
A. Covering individual lungs
B. Lining the thoracic cavity
C. Covering the heart
D. Lining the abdominal cavity
Lining the thoracic cavity
Which one of the following systems responds to environmental stimuli?
A. Muscular
B. Lymphatic
C. Immune
D. Nervous
Nervous
Choose the anatomical topic and definition that is not correctly matched
A. Gross anatomy: study of structures visible to the eye
B. Microscopic anatomy: study of structures too small to be seen by the naked eye
C. Cytology: study of structures in a particular region
D. Embryology: study of the changes in an individual from conception to birth
Cytology: study of structures in a particular region
Homeostasis is the condition in which the body maintains _________
A. The lowest possible energy usage
B. A relatively stable internal environment, within limits
C. A static state with no deviation from preset points
D. A dynamic state within an unlimited range
A relatively stable internal environment, within limits
In which cavities are the lungs located?
A. Pleural, ventral, and thoracic
B. Mediastinum, thoracic, and ventral
C. Pleural, dorsal, and abdominal
D. Pericardial, ventral, and thoracic
Pleural, ventral, and thoracic
Choose the following statement that is not completely correct regarding serous membranes
A. Serosa are very thin, double-layered structures
B. Serous membranes are divided into parietal and visceral membranes with a potential space between the two
C. Visceral pericardium covers the surface of the heart, and parietal pericardium lines the walls of the heart
D. Serous membranes secrete a watery lubricating fluid
Visceral pericardium covers the surface of the heart, and parietal pericardium lines the walls of the heart
Place the following in correct sequence from simplest to most complex
1. Molecules
2. Atoms
3. Tissues
4. Cells
5. Organ
2-1-4-3-5
Which of the following imaging devices would best localize a tumor in a person's brain?
MRI
Which of these is not part of the dorsal cavity?
A. Cranial cavity
B. Thoracic cavity
C. Spinal cord
D. Vertebral cavity
Thoracic cavity
In which abdominopelvic cavity is the stomach located?
A. Right upper
B. Right lower
C. Left upper
D. Left lower
Left upper
Which of the following statements is the most correct regarding homeostatic imbalance?
A. It is considered the cause of most diseases
B. The internal environment is becoming more stable
C. Positive feedback mechanisms are overwhelmed
D. Negative feedback mechanisms are functioning normally
It is considered the cause of most diseases
Subdivisions of anatomy include which of the following?
A. Gross, macroscopic, visual and microscopic
B. Gross, regional, dissection, and surface
C. Regional, surface, visual, and microscopic
D. Gross, regional, systemic, and surface
Gross, regional, systemic, and surface
The term pollex refers to the _______
Thumb
The dorsal body cavity is the site of which of the following?
A. Intestines
B. Brain
C. Lungs
D. Liver
Brain
Select the most correct statement
A. The immune system is closely associated with the lymphatic system
B. Organ systems operate independently of each other to maintain life
C. The endocrine system is not a true structural organ system
D. Organ systems can be composed of cells or tissues, but not both
The immune system is closely associated with the lymphatic system
One of the functional characteristics of life is irritability. This refers to ________
A. Indigestible food residues stimulating the excretory system
B. Sensing changes in the environment and then reacting or responding to them
C. The nervous system causing all living things to sometimes experience anger
D. The necessity for all organisms to reproduce
Sensing changes in the environment and then reacting or responding to them
Which of the following are survival needs of the body?
A. Nutrients, water, movement, and reproduction
B. Nutrients, water, growth, reproduction
C. Water, atmospheric pressure, growth, and movement
D. Nutrients, water, atmospheric pressure, and oxygen
Nutrients, water, atmospheric pressure, and oxygen
The anatomical position is used ________
As a standard reference point for directional terms regardless of the actual position of the body
What is a vertical section through the body dividing it into right and left called?
Sagittal
What is a vertical section through the body dividing it into anterior and posterior regions?
Frontal
Which body cavity protects the nervous system?
Dorsal
Which of the following describes the operation of the heart and blood vessels?
Cardiovascular physiology
Similar cells that have a common function are called
Tissues
What does the "principle of complementarity of structures and function" mean?
What a structure can do depends on its specific form, or "structure determines function"
The term that describes the back of the elbow is
Olecranal
The term that describes the heel region is
Calcaneal
The elbow is __________ to the wrist
Proximal
The _____________ cavity contains timy bones that transmit sound vibrations to the organ of hearing in the inner ear
Middle ear
__________ is explained by chemical and physical principles and is concerned with the function of specific organs or organ systems
Physiology
What is a dynamic equilibrium of your internal environment termed?
Homeostasis
Which cavity contains the bladder, some reproductive organs, and the rectum?
Pelvic
What is the serous membrane that covers the intestines called?
Visceral
_________ physiology concerns urine production and kidney function
Renal
What broad term covers all chemical reactions that occur within the body cells?
Metabolism
What is the function of the serous membrane?
They act to reduce friction and allow the organs to slide across cavity walls
Fully describe the anatomical position for the body
They body is erect, arms hanging at the sides, palms forward, and thumbs pointed away from the midline
What does gross anatomy study?
Larger structures of the body that can be seen with the naked eye
Can lungs carry out excretory functions?
Yes
Carbon dioxide is a metabolic waste the lungs excrete
The higher we go in the mountains, the greater the atmospheric pressure, which causes a loss of oxygen. Comment on this statement
The statement is backwards
The higher we go, the less atmospheric pressure, therefore less oxygen
Why is anatomical terminology necessary?
Anatomical terms are precise words that have limited usage, which prevents confusion when describing the location of body parts
The five cavities of the head are cranial, oral, nasal, middle ear, and ___________
Orbital
The ability to sense changes in the environment and respond to them is called
Responsiveness or irritability
What is the single most abundant chemical substance in the body?
Water
Why must a normal body temperature be maintained in order for chemical reactions to be continued at a life sustainining rates?
If body temperature is too low, chemical reactions slow and eventually stop. If body temperature is too high, chemical reactions speed up and body proteins lose their normal shape, resulting in loss of function
What is the pathway between the receptor and the control center in the reflex pathway called?
Afferent pathway
What type of homeostatic feedback reflex is the withdrawal reflex?
Negative
Why are the abdominopelvic cavity organs the most vulnerable in an automobile accident?
The walls of the abdominal cavity are formed only by trunk muscles and are not reinforced by bone. The pelvic organs receive a somewhat greater degree of protection
What is the goal of all the negative feedback mechanisms of the body?
The goal is to prevent sudden severe changes within the body
Which feedback mechanism causes the variable to deviate further and further from its original value or range?
Positive feedback
What can happen when the usual negative feedback mechanisms are overwhelmed and destructive positive feedback mechanisms take over?
Homeostatic imbalances increase our risk for illness and produce the changes we associate with aging
Which body system would be most affected by a lower than normal atmospheric pressure?
Respiratory system
A small family was traveling in its van and had a minor accident. The children in the back seats were wearing lap belts, but still sustained numerous bruises about the abdomen, and had some internal organ injuries. Why is this area more vulnerable to damage than others?
The abdominal organs are the least protected in the body because they are not surrounded by a bony covering such as the ribs, pelvis, or cranium
A surgeon removed a section of tissue along a transverse plane for microscopic examination. What two names would the section be called?
A cross section or a transverse section
Judy is 16 years old and collapses on the gym floor with severe pain in her chest wall. She is rushed by ambulance to the emergency room. Judy is diagnosed with pleurisy and is given an anti-inflammatory through intravenous route. Explain why an anti-inflammatory would be prescribed for someone with pleurisy.
The pleural space contains a small amount of fluid that acts as a lubricant, alllowing pleurae to slide smoothly over each other as the lungs expand and contract. Pleurisy is an inflammation of the prietal pleura of the lungs. When inflammation occurs in the pleural space, the pleurae do not slide smoothly and this causes severe pain
Explain why an 80 year old woman requires a much longer time to recover from the flu than does a woman who is age 30
As we age, our body['s control systems become less efficient. As a result, our internal environment becomes less and less stable
The nurse charted: "Patient has an open wound located on lateral aspect of leg." Describe where the wound is located
The wound is located on the outer side of the leg
The patient was admitted to the hospital with hypertension. They development of arteriosclerosis has increased peripheral resistance to blood flow, worsening his hypertension. This is an example of what type of feedback loop and why?
Positive feedback loops are common in pathophysiological perpetuationof disease. For example, arteriosclerotic hypertension results in positive feedback mechanisms that enhance and propagate the initial step in the chain of events, which is hypertension