AP GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS: CHAPTER 6: MEDIA
Terms in this set (73)
Trace how the American mass media have evolved over time and describe the major types of news sources today.
Mass media: sources that provide information to the average citizen, such as newspapers, TV networks, radio stations, and websites.
Evolution of Mass Media:
Colonial America: Newspapers, Ben Franklin - Pennsylvania Gazette 1729
During/After Rev. War: newspaper became a place for political debates
1830s- Yellow Journalism and Muckrakers emerged (greatly influenced Spanish American War)
After WWI: New technology=Radio
Communications Act of 1934 creates FCC
1940s: Rise of TV as source of information
1990s: Use of internet for news surges and continues to surge
Major Types of News Sources Today: Newspapers, magazines, TV, Radio, Internet
Describe where reporters and others in the news media get political information.
Coverage of American politics reflects trade-offs between reporters who want accurate information and sources who want favorable coverage.
Politicians hold press conferences where they allow reporters to ask them questions
Reporters can also get information from the Associated Press. They gather information and sell it to media outlets.
Explain the ways in which the media may influence politics.
Media Effects: The influence of media coverage on average citizens' opinions and actions.
Modern theories state that there are 4 media effects that influence politics:
Details of Media coverage affect what citizens know about politics and government policy.
Assess whether the media fulfill their role in American Democracy.
The media's job is to provide citizens with information about politicians, government actions, and policy debates in a democracy.
There is some prevalent media bias, and many journalists admit that they take an ideological standpoint in their articles.
Analyze who uses which sources and whether it matters.
By-Product Theory: The idea that many Americans acquire political information unintentionally rather than by seeking it out.
Older Americans tend to read newspapers and watch the TV networks more than younger Americans.
Younger Americans tend to use the Internet to find their political information.
Sources that provide information to the average citizen, such as newspapers, TV networks, radio stations, and websites.
True or False: Mass media describes the dramatic changes occurring in new forms of media
False (Mass Media also affect how people use the information given to them)
True or False: The ways mass media changes affects only the amount of political information available and how it is delivered.
True (The first newspaper published was by Benjamin Franklin. It was called the Pennsylvania Gazette and published in 1729)
True or False: Media have been very active since Colonial America
This was originally created in 1833. Newspapers sold for one cent, when more efficient printing presses made reduced-price newspapers available to a larger segment of the population
True (Before the penny press, newspapers were too expensive for some people to buy)
True or False: The Penny Press made the newspaper available to the mass public for the first time. Q
An organization that gathers news and sells it to other media outlets. The invention of the telegraph in the early 1800s made this type of service possible.
True (It was created in the 1840s)
True or False: The Associated Press was the first wire service created in the United States
A style of newspaper popular in the late 1800s that featured sensationalized stories, bold headlines, and illustrations to increase readership.
False (Yellow Journalism DID contribute to the support of the Spanish American War, but was not the only cause)
True or False: Yellow journalism did not contribute to the support of the Spanish American War.
Also known as muckrakers, reporters who dig deeply into a particular topic of public concern, often targeting government failures and inefficiencies.
True or False: Lincoln Steffens and Upton Sinclair were some of the original and most significant muckrakers.
False (William Randolph Hearst created the New York Journal, which included a lot of yellow journalism)
True or False: William Randolph Hearst never created a newspaper.
Communications Act of 1934
Created the Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
FCC (Federal Communications Commission)
A government agency created to regulate American radio stations and later expanded to TV, wireless communication technologies, and other broadcast media.
True (Basically, they were worried about the creation of a monopoly)
True or False: The central concern the FCC has was that one company would buy enough stations to dominate airwaves and only speak about a certain point of view.
True (The coverage that was shown on TV was more graphic and showed the bad sides of war, which lead to the decline of support)
True or False: When TV became the popular news source in the 1940s, the support for war declined.
Communications technologies, such as television and radio, that transmit information over airwaves.
An FCC regulation requiring broadcast media to provide equal airtime on any non-news programming to all candidates running for an office.
False (The Fairness Doctrine was created in the late 1940s and eliminated in 1987)
True or False: The Fairness Doctrine is still present in American Government today.
Equal Time Provision
An FCC regulation requiring broadcast media to provide equal airtime on any non-news programming to all candidates running for an office.
True or False: The pressure to deregulate media sources has been a prevalent issue since media has evolved.
Telecommunications Act 1996
Congress enacted this act. It gave FCC the power to revise all ownership and content restrictions enacted over the last two generations.
False (Since that act was passed, the FCC has abolished most ownership restrictions on media)
True or False: Since the Telecommunications Act of 1996, the FCC has not abolished any ownership restrictions of media.
Name the two trends that have accelerated in American News Media from regulatory changes.
Concentration and Cross-Ownership
The trend toward single-company ownership of several media sources in one area
The trend toward single-company ownership of several kinds of media outlets
True or False: Concentration or Cross-Ownership trends have given rise to media conglomerates
Companies that control a large number of media sources across several types of media outlets.
Media sources that predate the internet, such as newspapers, magazines, TV, and radio
False (There has been a recent DECLINE in newspaper ownership)
True or False: There has been a recent increase in newspaper ownership.
Evening hours when TV viewership is at its highest and networks often schedule news programs
The time between the release of information and its publication, like the 24-hours between issues of a daily newspaper.
True or False: Most political content found on radio come from talk shows with a host talking about politics
False (The INTERNET has emerged as a major source of information in the last 20 years)
True or False: The radio has emerged as a major source of information in the last 20 years.
True or False: Internet is the fastest source for news information
In terms of different media sources, it is how deep into certain political issues a type of media can get into. For example, radio does not have a very deep breadth because their time is limit. The internet has a very deep breadth because it has no limits.
List some differences the internet makes on media.
- New kinds of political information is available to the average citizen
- It makes available tons of analytic information
- The proliferation of videos on the internet allows average Americans to see politics first hand
True (This includes links to articles, newspapers online, blogs (including SCOTUS), and social media (FB, Twitter, YouTube))
True or False: The range of online sources is very wide.
True or False: People in federal government work to shape media coverage to suit their personal goals
An event at which a politician speaks to journalists and, in most cases, answers their questions afterward.
On Background/Off the Record
Comments a politician makes to the press on the condition that they can be reported only if they are not attributed to that politician
True (They give information to reporters who write stories that support them)
True or False: Elected officials use media to shape public opinion
Legislation, which exists in some states but not at the federal level, that gives reporters the right to refuse to name the sources of their information
False (Reporters CAN be jailed for not revealing their sources)
True or False: Reporters can't be jailed for refusing to reveal sources to the court
- concerns of jeopardizing national security
- want to maintain good relationships with government sources
- the news may not be the truth, but just an attempt to shape public opinion
List the three reasons reporters may not want to reveal the whole story to the court.
The idea that many Americans acquire political information unintentionally rather than by seeking it out.
True or False: The level of interest for a certain subject determines whether new information modifies peoples' political views.
False (Media coverage is most likely affect the beliefs of people who take a MODERATE interest in politics)
True or False: Media Coverage is most likely affect the beliefs of people who take an extreme interest in politics)
True or False: The best coverage of news comes from getting it from a wide variety of media sources
This results from journalists' and editors' decisions about which of many news stories to report
The imbalance in a story that covers one candidate or policy favorably without providing similar coverage of the other side
The influence on the public's general impressions caused by positive or negative coverage of a candidate or issue
The influence on public opinion caused by the way a story is presented or covered, including the details, explanations, and context offered in the report
False (Details in media coverage AFFECT what citizens know about politics and government policy)
True or False: Details in media coverage do not affect what citizens know about politics and government policy.
True or False: The media's job is to provide citizens with information about politicians, gov't actions, and policy debates in a democracy
False (Many journalists and reporters DO admit that they take an ideological standpoint)
True or False: Many journalists and reporters don't take an ideological standpoint.
A type of increasingly popular media coverage focused on political scandals and controversies, which causes a negative public opinion of public figures.
A description of the type of election coverage that focuses more on poll results and speculation about a likely winner than on substantive differences between the candidates
Media coverage that aims to entertain or shock, often through sensationalized reporting or by focusing on a candidate or politician's personality.
Media coverage focuses on facts and important issues surrounding a campaign.
True (It is more appealing to the audience)
True or False: Media uses more soft news than hard news
What is the fairness doctrine?
a. TV and radio stations must offer a variety of political views in programs.
b. TV and radio stations must give equal time to candidates running advertisements
c. News anchors cannot slander political candidates
d. Radio station owners cannot also own TV and print media outlets
e. Journalists must investigate challengers as well as incumbents.
The deregulation of the media has resulted in _____.
a. increasing enforcement of the equal time provision
b. increasing enforcement of the fairness doctrine
c. increasing use of the Internet
d. increasing scrutiny of media concentration
e. increasing frequency of cross-ownership
What aren't media sources interchangeable?
a. They all are able to diffuse information on the same time frame
b. Local news stations depend on major news sources for most of their content
c. They are all able to spend the same amount of time covering an event
d. They have similar access to campaigns and political offices throughout the country.
e. Newspapers offer very brief content.
Which is the result of the decreased barriers on the Internet?
a. Few opportunities exist for citizens to interact with reporters or government officials
b. People with no official connection to candidates can have a significant influence on elections
c. The accuracy of political information has improved
d. Few average citizens report on events as they happen
e. Like-minded political supporters have difficulty organizing and staying informed on issues
Why hasn't the Internet increased citizens' political knowledge?
a. it can be hard to find political news on the Internet
b. Most people do not have access to the Internet
c. Most people read content from a wide range of balanced media sources
d. Most people only focus on websites that reinforce their own views
e. Search engines don't include political topics
"Staging the news" refers to _________.
a. the media's attempt to framing public opinion
b. sources' attempt to remain confidential
c. newspaper editors determining which story to put on the front page
d. politicians attempting to influence coverage by providing select information
e. reporters' choice to delay a story
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