94 terms

Psychology 391

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Terms in this set (...)

Bigotry
Contempt for differences or extreme intolerance
Ex: Donald Trump, Westboro Baptist Group, David Duke , & Dylan Roof

A collection of "isms"
Racism, Ethnocentrism, Sexism
(Phallocentrism), Ageism,
Heterosexism, Ableism
(Handicapism)...
Bias
Stereotyping and its attitudinal and cognitive consequences
Prejudice
Evaluative/judgmental attitude(s) about an entire social group
Discrimination
Behaviors targeting an entire social group
Hate
Intense or passionate dislike, aversion, or abhorrence of a social group
Hate Incidents
Non-directed threats and/or acts against target group members;
"violation of rights motivated by bigotry—but not criminal"
Hate Crimes (also called Bias Crimes)
Criminal actions against target group members/property
Types of Bigotry: A collection of "isms"
Hatred of other racial groups
Resentment of ethnic/cultural minorities
Intolerance of other religious groups
Contempt for other gender
Disdain for gay men and lesbians
Scorn for elderly and disabled persons
Various combinations of the above
Stereotype
Beliefs and opinions about the
characteristics, attributes, and
behaviors of members of various
groups.
Basic Building Blocks of Bigotry
Prejudice Attitudes
Three components (ABCs):
affective (emotional) - usually
negative, ie. dislike, disgust, hate;
cognitive - stereotype;
behavioral tendency -
discrimination, avoidance, violence
Basic Building Blocks of Bigotry
Discrimination
Treating people
differently from others
based primarily on
membership in a
social group
Pledge to Speak Up!
Speak up when I hear or see bigotry;
Question and identify bias when I see it;
Be mindful of my own behaviors;
Promote and appeal to higher principles;
Set limits on what is said or done around me;
Seek help and help others to work against bigotry; and
Remain vigilant and persistent.
Prejudice
A biased evaluation of a group
Typically occurring between groups: Us vs. Them
Can be positive or negative
Based on real or imagined characteristics of group members
Stereotypes
A set of characteristics associated with
a cognitive category
These characteristics are used by perceivers to
process information about the group or
members of the group
Homo Stereotypus: Wired for Trouble
Categorizing seems "hardwired"—we have a limited capacity
cognitive system and the human brain seems to automatically
classify or categorize similar objects in the environment...
"cognitive miser" "us-them"
Categorizing occurs on the basis of shared perceptual features
(skin color, eye color, hair color, etc.)
Categorization is guided by salient features that are dictated by
society/culture's dominant groups (eg., caucasian,
heterosexual)
Fundamental Attribution Error
Inferences or explanations
made about another's actions
or behavior by seeking
something intrinsic (i.e.,
dispositional) about the person
rather than something extrinsic
(i.e., situational or
circumstantial)
Put simply...overestimating the
influence of personality and
underestimating the influence
of situations.
Ultimate Attribution Error
•In‐group (us) gets enhancing attributions
‐positive acts explained as dispositional
‐negative acts explained as situational
or circumstantial
•Out‐group (them) gets diminishing
attributions
‐ positive acts explained as situational
or circumstantial (a fluke, luck, etc.)
‐negative acts explained as
dispositional
Outgroup Homogeneity Effect (Check this out)
(Ingroup Heterogeneity Effect)
Tendency to
underestimate
differences in
members of outgroups
(e.g., "they all look
alike")
Social-Identity Theory (Tajfel, 1979)
All people prefer to see themselves positively (we need
positive self-regard/high self-esteem)
Part of self-image is defined by our group memberships
Can lead to ingroup bias or favoritism
Optimal Distinctiveness Theory (Brewer, 1991)
People are most likely to identify with groups that provide the
most satisfying balance between personal identity and group
identity.
Group identification satisfies security needs
Realistic Conflict Theory
(Campbell, 1965)
When groups compete for
scarce resources
Prejudice and hostility
(between the groups) will
result
Robbers Cave study (Sherif et al., 1961)
Two groups of 12-year-old boys at camp
Eagles and Rattlers
Verbal insults and name-calling ("ladies first";
"sissies", "stinkers", "pigs", "bums", "cheaters",
"communists")
Escalation of conflict: property destruction,
theft, fistfights, food and garbage fights
Integrated Threat Theory (Stephen, 2000)
when one group's actions, beliefs, or characteristics challenge the
goal attainment or well-being of another group
Integrated Threat Theory
Realistic threats - safety, economy, politics,
health, well-being
Symbolic threats - beliefs and values, morals
Intergroup anxiety
Negative stereotyping
Relative Deprivation Theory
Group(s) perceive they are disadvantaged
relative to an outgroup, in attaining important
group goals
Prejudice and resentment toward the
outgroup results
Perceived injustice
Scapegoat theory
Scapegoating=Antipathy towards others who have played no role
in a group's perceived real or relative deprivation
A person or group is thwarted from a particular goal
He/she/they feel(s) anger, irritation, or disappointment
That anger, irritation, or disappointment is similar to the
negative affect we feel toward disliked outgroups
Eventually the outgroup is blamed for the ingroup's failure
to attain their goal
The ingroup feels prejudice
toward the outgroup
Scapegoat Theory (Book Reference)
When the price of cotton plummeted in the 1890's, the number of lynching peaked.
Prejudice and Social Marking
When a group becomes a "problem" to the
dominant groups in a society, the dominant
groups emphasize the ways their people
differ from those "problem" people.
Dominant groups use these marked and
highlighted differences to explain and to
justify their views of these others and their
treatment of them.
Once a group is identified as a "problem",
the dominant groups begin to attribute
negative characteristics to them in an effort
to explain why they are a problem.
Essentialist Thinking
People assume that the major categories by which their
society has taught them to organize the world are
"natural" and "essential" defining properties of those
persons and objects that have been sorted/categorized,
i.e., they are seen as a part of the world rather than as a
function of social perception.
--In the US, race is such an "essential" property
--In parts of Asia, occupation functions in the same manner
--In India, caste is viewed in this manner
Social Identity Theory
The differences that become central to a dominant social group are important to
that group's sense of its own identity
Protected Groups/Categories
Under Civil/Criminal Laws
Pertaining to Hate Crimes in CA
Race
Color
Religion
Ancestry
Political affiliation
Sex
Sexual orientation—LGBTQI+
Age
Position in a labor dispute
Combination of any of the above
Violence
is the expression of physical or
verbal force against self or other,
compelling action against one's will on
pain of being hurt.
Extreme force
Action intended to cause
destruction, pain, or suffering;
Widespread fighting; Injustice, wrong
Conceptual
Types of Violence
Instrumental aggression
Hostile aggression
Impulsive/stimulus
Family (domestic)
violence
Instrumental ("cold") aggression
rational and calculated. Aggression is used by the individual in order to maximize personal gains.
Hostile ("hot") aggression
is reactive and impulsive. Aggression is driven by feelings (e.g., anger), often in the absence of a
rational cost-benefit analysis.
Impulsive/stimulus
seeking violence
Family (domestic) violence
hostile aggression between people who are
intimately involved with each other.
UCR (Uniform Crime Reports)
Official statistics
NCVS (National Crime Victimization Survey)
Government survey of victims data
Self-report surveys
National Family Violence Survey
National Violence Against Women Survey
Assault
wilding-the activity by a gang of youths of going on a protracted and violent rampage in a public place, attacking people at random.
Legal categories/types of violence
Homicide
Sexual assault
Juvenile violence
Domestic violence
Domestic violence
Physical - inflicting physical injuries
Sexual - coercing sexual contact
Neglect - failing to provide adequate care
Verbal, psychological, emotional - constant
criticism, instilling fear
Economic - making or attempting to make
the victim financially dependent
Interpersonal violence
○ Assault and battery
○ Corporal punishment (e.g., spanking, caning)
○ Homicide (murder, manslaughter)
○ Kidnapping
○ Rape and sexual assault
○ Robbery
○ Suicide
○ Verbal abuse, threat, intimidation (emotional
abuse)
Institutional violence
○ Family: child/elder abuse; spousal abuse
○ Economic: corporate and workplace abuse
○ Military: petty hazing to war crimes
○ Religious: abuse in name of religious
organizations, cultism, witch hunts, heresy
persecutions, religion-based terrorism
○ State: abuse by authority of fundamental human
rights
Structural violence
○Establishment maintenance: establishing, defending,
extending cultural/societal group
hierarchy/dominance/inequality by beating, exploiting,
harassing, killing, and torturing persons based on their
age, class, ethnicity, gender, and/or sexual orientation
○ Anti-establishment: decreasing privilege and/or
increasing liberty by resisting, protesting, and
attacking persons, symbols, property that represent
the established order
Earliest empirical investigation
McKellar, 1950
Early Theories of Hate
An emotion of extreme dislike or
aggressive impulses toward a person or
group of persons (Allport, 1954)

Fromm (1973/1992): two forms
Rational hate - rational basis
Character-conditioned hate - associated with
prejudice and aggression
Traditional view
hate entails an intense
desire for the annihilation of its object
Hate: a modern definition
The cognitive components are likely to
include devaluation or a negative view of some
other and the perception of threat from that
other. The emotional components are likely to
include dislike, fear, anger, and hostility.
Another likely element of hate is a sense of
rightness or justice about acting against the
object of one's hate. (Staub, 2005)
Devaluation and Hate
Us vs. them
The Other (them) = violation of moral norms
The Other (them) = dangerous threat
Vicious cycle
Devaluation leads
to hate leads to
further devaluation
leads to stronger
hate etc
Moral Exclusion
Outside the scope of justice (outgroup) -
targets of exploitation and/or violence
Moral exclusion increases in the context of
conflict
Baumeister: The Question of Evil
Actions that intentionally harm other people
Magnitude gap
Perpetrator may regard action as ordinary and unremarkable
Victim regards same action as extraordinary, immoral, and
emotionally devastating
Instrumental evil/violence
a means to acceptable ends, such as
wealth, pleasure, and power (ie.,
greed, lust, ambition)
Evil
means often appear
easier and more feasible than
legitimate or conventional
ones
Evil as a means to an end:
Instrumental violence
Asserting dominance
Right Wing Authoritarianism
(RWA)
Constellation of attitudes:
authoritarian submission,
authoritarian aggression, and
conventionalism:
5 prejudicial patterns of thought (cognition)
Conventionalism
Authoritarian submission
Authoritarian aggression
Stereotypy (especially sexual)
Projectivity
Committed Religiosity - more open to interpretation
Ideas about the world and others tends to be more complex and
"open-minded"
Greater tolerance, less prejudice
Consensual
more literal and concrete interpretations
of religion
Unreceptive to other ideas/opinions
Greater intolerance, more prejudice
Extrinsic Orientation
Use religion for self-aggrandizement
Attend church infrequently
Tend to have higher prejudice toward others
Intrinsic Orientation
Internalize values of their religion
Live life according to religious values/beliefs
Attend church regularly
Tend to be more egalitarian
Quest orientation
Process of questioning, doubting,
and reexamination of life issues
Generally higher in prosocial
behaviors, e.g., compassion for
others
Religious Fundamentalism
Belief that there is one "true" set of
revealed principles (religious teachings)
Social Dominance Theory
"It is perfectly obvious that an upper-class
child, with access to outstanding schools,
extra tutoring, good nutrition, high-quality
healthcare, and well-connected parents
will do substantially better in life than an
equally talented and ambitious poor child
who lacks such privileges."
Social-Dominance Orientation
some see these as ideologies (not
personality traits)—i.e., sets of
attitudes/beliefs that predispose
one to view the world in certain
ways and respond in ways
consistent with these views
Need Approaches
Cognition
structure
closure
Psychodynamic explanations of prejudice
5 prejudicial patterns of thought (cognition):
Conventionalism
Authoritarian submission
Authoritarian aggression
Stereotypy (especially sexual)
Projectivity
UCR
Uniform crime report
NCVS
(National Crime Victimization Survey)
Government survey of victim data
Self-report surveys
National Family Violence Survey
National Violence Against Women Survey
Pan-violence
describes violent individuals who violent in both the home (with family members) and outside the home (violent in the streets.)
NCVS (National Crime Victimization Survey)
Government survey of victim data
The four roots of evil
1. Instrumental: evil as a means to an end. 2. Egoistic: evil as payback. 3. Fanatical: evil in service of idealism. 4. The joy of hurting: evil as source of pleasure.
"myth of pure evil"
1. Characterized by intentional inflicting of harm
2.They inflict harm merely for pleasure of doing so
3.Victim is always both good and innocent
4.Evil resides in the other/enemy
5.The dispositional character of evil perpetrators
6.Evildoers are egotistical
7.Evil is the opposite of order and peace
8.Evildoers have difficulty maintaining emotional control
Quest orientation
process of questioning, doubting, and reexamination of life issues. Generally higher in prosocial behaviors. Have compassion for others.
Intrinsic
internalize values of their religion. Live life according to religious values and attend church regularly.
Extrinsic
use religion for self aggrandizement. Attend church infrequently and tend to have higher prejudice toward others.
Cognitive closure
tend to need an answer, any answer to a given topic, so that they may arrive at a conclusion.
Need for structure
motivation for desiring clear, certain, or unambiguous knowledge about a topic.
Need for cognition
motivation to think about the world. Enjoy thinking, seeking and pondering problems/information about world.
social dominance orientation (SDO)
preference to inequality among social groups.
types of prejudice/racism (old-fashioned, symbolic, aversive, etc.)
Old fashioned racism
believe in innate superiority of white race, low acceptance of equality, accept traditional racist beliefs, and strong negative emotions.
ADL's "hate pyramid"
1. Negation of intimacy (distancing. 2. Passion (anger-->fear) 3. Commitment (devaluation)
social desirability
a social science research term that describes the tendency of survey respondents to answer questions in a manner that will be viewed favorably by others. It can take the form of over-reporting "good behavior" or under-reporting "bad", or undesirable behavior.
bogus pipeline method
a technique used by social psychologists to reduce false answers when attempting to collect self-report data. For example, social desirability is a common reason for warped survey results.
cognitive miser model of cognition
the general idea that individuals frequently rely on simple and time efficient strategies when evaluating information and making decisions.
ultimate attribution errors
In group gets enhancing attributions and out group gets diminishing attributions.
cognitive dissonance
the feeling from having inconsistent thoughts/beliefs/attitudes and behaviors (ex: believing smoking is harmful but still smoking)
Old-Fashioned
Tries to exclude or dominate and control minority groups
Symbolic prejudice
Opposes social policies benefiting minorities; anti-minority bias if justifiable as unprejudiced
Aversive
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