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Radical reconstruction after the Civil War, every Confederate state except TN was not a state anymore (again), South is divided into 5 military districts, changes to state constitutions protecting black rights, Confederate leaders cannot vote, Confederate states have to ratify the 14th amendment
1865, abolishes slavery and involuntary servitude, applies to all territories, resulted from need to put this in writing (Dred Scott decision), fixes fact that there were still slaves in the Union
1868, declares all persons born/naturalized in the US to be citizens, important b/c African Americans are now considered citizens, equal protection laws->states have to uphold the rights of citizens in states
Federal agency under the war department, supposed to deal with former slaves who were refugees, distributed medicine/clothes/food, created public school for blacks, provides legal council when black enters into a labor contract, facilitated marriages between black couples, didn't deal w/ real issues of gaining African Americans more rights
Compromise of 1877
Reaction from the election of 1876 when there were accusations of fraud after the electoral college messed up, stated Hayes (republican) would be the president but democrats would get an end to reconstruction, federal government also pays for railroad going South to West through New Orleans
When a farmer doesn't own any of the equipment or land, farmer gives the land's owner the majority of the crop leaving the farmer with only enough crop to eat, only way for many farmers to get money, many African Americans were pushed into this profession after they were freed
Knights of Labor
Secret/radical organization wanting to do away w/ wage labor system, 8 hour work day, abolish child labor, equal pay for women, "all workers who toil" are included (white, black, men, women)
American Federation of Labor
Wanted to improve working conditions/wages/hours/breaks and lunches, share the wealth of capitalism, organization made up of mostly white males, skilled workers, used strikes as a last resort (bargained first)
Haymarket Square Incident
Strike Knight of Labor was involved in, turned ugly, clash between striker and officer (striker was killed), resulted in huge rally next day when a bomb went off in the direction of the police, police open fire and 4 people are killed white 7 police are killed, downfall of KL b/c gave them a bad name (took part in massacre and when there were anarchists speaking)
1894, Company lays off a bunch of people and the remainder work force has wages cut (not enough to live off of), people sit on rails in protest, company connects Pullman cars to the postal service cars so the men have to move (if they don't it would be considered a federal crime), led by Eugene Debs (trying to start socialism in US)
"New" vs "Old" Immigrants
New=southern/eastern Europe (Italy, Russia, Poland< Greece, Hungary), orthodox (not protestant, willing to work for low wages that Americans aren't; Old=British isles or northern/western Europe (Ireland, Scotland, Whales, England), white, anglo-protestants
A new amusement park (1885), beach, pavilions, volleyball houses, circus, rides, hot-dog stands, 1/2 million people go every weekend, opens outside of major cities
Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
Sweat shop where many European women worked to make clothing, women were taking long breaks so the company started locking doors to keep women in, when a fire started women couldn't get out, many jumped out of windows and died, leads to fire and safety codes
Response to new immigration, feeling of identity crisis for Americans, bias is made against new immigrants b/c they don't fit the "American" mold, also mad b/c immigrants take jobs away since they will work for less, differences=Catholic, stereotypes, leads to immigration restrictions (Chinese Expulsion Act), similar to the No-Nothing Party
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