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Foraging society


Neolithic Revolution

from 8000 to 3000 BCE, when people moved from nomadic lifestyles to agricultural lifestyles and cities. No civilizations yet.

Nomadic vs Agricultural societies

Agricultural societies were more possessive because they lived around the same place. They began to think of the land as theirs.


land between Tigris and Euphrates rivers where Sumer, Babylon, and Persia resided


In southern part on Mesopotamia. Developed cuneiform. Built ziggarauts to appease their gods. Were polytheistic. 3000-1700BCE

Akkad's major contribution

first known code of laws

Code of Hammurabi

code of laws developed by King Hammurabi of Babylon


Dominated Mesopotamia by using iron (were the first)


Established capital at Nineveh. Had highly disciplined, cruel army.


rebuilt Babylon, was a Chaldean king

Persian Empire

was massive by 500 BCE, built road systems, longest being Great Royal Road


introduced coined money


developed phonetic alphabet that Greeks used


first monotheistic peoples, were enslaved by Nebuchadnezzar but freed by the Persians

King Menes

allegedly united Nile River Valley, before the Old Kingdom


Egyptian writing system using pictures

Women in Egypt

First female ruler in history Queen Hatshepsut, she expanded trade. During New Kingdom, women had considerable rights but were still subservient to men.

Egyptian Social Structure

Pharoah (who owned all land), Priests, Nobles, Merchants/artisans, peasants, slaves (usually prisoners of war)

Decline of Egypt and Mesopotamian civilizations

became powerful and large, envious neighbors attack, the civilization can't protect all borders.

Indus Valley Civilization

allong Indus River Valley; traded through Khyber Pass in the mountains; strong city planning, central government, and industry, made cloth.


over time began to dominate Indus Valley, nomadic tribes with horses and advanced weaponry, recorded their beliefs in the Vedas and Upanishads, important books for Hinduism. Also introduced Hindu caste system.

Hindu caste system

priests (Brahmans), warriors, merchants and landowners, peasants

Shang China

Rose in Yellow River Valley, controlled it from 1600-1100 BCE, had a very ethnocentric attitude due to isolation, patriarchal.

Zhou Dynasty

believed in Mandate of Heaven, ruled nearly 900 years (1100-256 BCE), developed feudal system, but eventually nobles became too powerful


a way of organizing government tasks by department, or bureau

Bantu migrations

The movement south and east of farmers in West Africa, probably due to climactic changes in the Sahara. Occured from 1500 BCE to 500 CE.


city in sub-Saharan Africa, a small fishing settlement reaching urban size by 400 CE, apparantly had no hierarchical organization or centralization


lived in Mexico from 1400 to 1200 BCE, mastered irrigation, had large buildings, was created independently (did not see other civilizations) and was not created in a river valley


lived in Andes from 900 to 300 BCE, were agricultural and used metal tools/weapons, was created independently (did not see other civilizations) and was not created in a river valley


From 300 BCE to 800 CE in southern Mexico and Central America. Developed large cities like Tikal, maize was an important crop, participated in warfare to acquire slaves, developed accurate calendar.

Chichen Itza

Mayan temple

Mauryan Empire

India from 321-180 BCE, founded by Chandragupta Maurya, brought to golden age by Ashoka Maurya, wealthy by trade to Mesopotamia and Eastern Roman Empire, had powerful military, declined from economic problems and northeast invaders


Converted to Buddhism and many Mauryans followed his example. Also created Rock and Pillar Edicts, which were carvings in rocks and pillars saying to live well

Gupta Empire

followed Mauryan Empire. Under Chandra Gupta, India experienced golden age. Gupta mathematicians developed pi and zero, and devised decimal system that diffused to Arabs (Arabic numerals), collapsed in 550 CE by pressure from White Huns.

Gupta and women

Hinduism was again dominant religion, women were increasingly losing rights

Qin Dynasty

very short (221 to 209 BCE), headed by Shi Huangdi, Legalist government, began work on Great Wall. Shi Huangdi reunited feudal kingdoms that had broken apart and standardized Chinese laws, currencies, writing, etc.

Han Dynasty

China (200 BCE to 200 CE), Wu Ti enlarged the empire, trade thrived on the Silk Road and Buddhism spread here, civil service exam based on Confucian ideas was developed.


large nomadic group believed to be Huns who invaded territiories in China during the Han Dynasty.

Geography of Ancient Greece and its implications

Mostly mountainous, little agriculture, they relied on their coastal trade position for wealth; land was tight so the Greeks tried to colonize abroad: this made them have a powerful military


city-state in Ancient Greece

Athens and Sparta differences

Athens was the political, commercial, and cultural center of Greek civilization; Sparta was an agricultural and highly mitilaristic region.

Athens social classes

(1) citizens, composed of adult males (2) free people without political rights (3) slaves

Democracy in Athens

Athens was at first an aristocracy. Draco and Solon were aristocrats who worked towards democracy in Athens. Not totally a democracy because only adult male citizens, a small portion of the population, could vote. Slave labor granted citizens the free time to meet and vote politically.

What is unique about the Greek gods?

they possessed human failings

Persian Wars

united the Greek city-states against their mutual enemy, Persia. Allowed Greece to enter the Golden Age of Pericles

Pericles and his Golden Age

Pericles established democracy and rebuilt Athens after its destruction by the Persians. He also formed the Delian League, a league joining Greek city-states against aggressors. Art and science flourished.

Greek art

Much was created during Golden Age of Pericles. Served as inspiration for European Renaissance and Enlightenment. People of Art: Aeschylus, Euripides, Phidias
People of Science: Archimedes, Hippocrates, Euclid, and Pythagoras
Philosophers: Socrates, Plato, Aristotle


wrote epic poems Illiad and the Odyssey before the golden age in Greece

Peloponnesian War

431 BCE, was a war between Athens and Sparta resulting from increased tensions and a trade dispute at Corinth. Sparta won, partly because a plague afflicted Athens.

Philip of Macedon

reigned 359 to 336 BCE, conquered all of Aegan peninsula, he respected Greek culture and encouraged it to flourish

Alexander the Great

Philip's son, was taught by Aristotle, conquered Persian Empire and moved eastward, creating the largest empire of the time.

Macedonian Empire regions

Antigonid (Greece and Macedon), Ptolemaic (Egypt), Seleucid (Asian areas and Anatolia)


the culture, ideas, and pattern of life of Classical Greece, that spread through the world in the 4th century by Alexander the Great's conquest

Social Structure of Roman Empire

patricians (nobles), plebians (poorer free men), slaves

Roman government

Representative republic. Had Senate, the Assembly, and two consuls (rulers)

Twelve tables of Rome

codified laws of Rome, major step towards modern law

Punic Wars

Wars from 264 to 146 BCE between Rome and Carthage, a city-state in North Africa. In the first, Rome got control of the island of Sicily. In the second, Rome also won, making it an undisputed power in the Mediterranean. In the third, 50 years later, Rome burned Carthage to the ground in revenge.


Carthagininan military genius who surprised the Romans from the north in the Second Punic War, but ultimately had to return to Carthage to defend the city

Collapse of the Roman Republic

(1) Large landowners used more slaves and small farmers (plebians) moved to the city, causing overcrowding. (2) Inflation (3) political leaders began fighting amond themselves

First Triumvirate

Pompey, Crassus, and Julius Caesar. The three men most political power was transferred to with the collapse of the republic.

Julius Caesar

won civil war between other members of first triumvirate and declared himself emperor. Was assassinated in 44 BCE.

Second Triumvirate

Octavius, Mark Antony, and Lepidus. Octavius rose to power and eventually declared himself emperor


also known as Augustus Caesar. Established the Pax Romana which would last 200 years.

Pax Romana

during Imperial Rome, five good emperors ruled and there were little problems with succession. Expanded to largest geographical proportions at this time. Arts and sciences flourished.

Important Roman artists/scientists

Ovid wrote Metamorphasis and Virgil wrote Aeneid; Ptolemy influenced astronomy

The introduction of Christianity to the Roman Empire

Paganism was the official state religion at first. Jews and Christians were often suppressed at first. Constantine' Edict of Milan (313 CE) stopped persecution and Christianity became the official religion of the empire by 391 CE.

Edict of Milan

An edict of religious toleration created by emperor Constantine in 313 CE.

Collapse of Maya

Nobody is exactly sure what happened. Mayans began deserting their cities in the 9th century CE.

Xin Dynasty

established by Wang Mang, interrupted the Han Dynasty. He caused problems in the economy, war on the borders resulted in heavy taxation, persistent famines and devestating floods occured. These events fueled peasant uprisings and the dynasty came to an end in 23 CE

Collapse of Han China

After the Xin dynasty, the Han was restored, but never recovered and the government collapsed in 220 CE, dividing China into regional kingdoms.

Collapse of Gupta

Invasions from White Huns weakened the empire and there were not enough taxes for military defense.

The Fall of the (Western) Roman Empire

Inflation, division of the empire into two parts, maintaining the giant empire became difficult, invasions from Germanic tribes fleeing Attila and his Huns, political instability.

Visigoths and sack of Rome

In 410 CE, a Germanic tribe the Visigoths sacked rome, and by 476 CE, the last Roman emperor was deposed


Became emperor in 284 CE, Divided the Roman empire into two regions, civil war erupted upon his retirement.


came to power in 322 CE, moved the capital of the Roman Empire to Byzantium and named it Constantinople. Empire again divided to east and west upon his death.

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