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42 terms

Bioethics final

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Gamete
Only haploid chromosome,sperm and egg
Homologous
Each diplod cell has two sets of chromosomes therefore two of each type of chromosome
Gene
A segment of DNA that codes for a particular protein and determine a particular function or trait of heredity
Chromosome
XX-female, XY-male, made up of DNA, linear or thread like structure found in the nucleaus of eukaryotic organisms, found during cell division
Autosome
Chromosome pairs of 1-22, regular chromosome that does not determine the sex of the individual,karyotype has 44 of these
Karyotype
A picture of someone's chromosomes
Allele
Different forms a gene can take
Sex chromosome
23 pairs of chromosomes X&Y, female=xx male=XY, x carries more Genes then y
Haploid
Having a single set of unpaired chromosomes
Meiosis
Converts diploid cells Into haploid, process in which gametes are made
Recombinant
DNA Molecules produced by combining DNA from different sources
Fertilization
Egg+sperm=diploid(gametes or germ cells) sperm determines sex of the offspring, chromosome number changes 2n->n
Mitosis
Produces diploid somatic cells, Chromosome number stays the same 2n->2n
Diploid
Two sets of chromosomes, haploid+haploid=diploid (2n)
Gene locus
Location of a chromosome
Somatic cell
220 sets of different gamete, any diploid cell in the body
Genome
A genes hereditary information
Mutation
A change/error in the genetic material; sources of new alleles
Substitution and frame shift
Enzyme
Speed up chemical reaction, most end in "ase"
Protein
Long chains of amino acids connected by peptide bonds
Amino acids
Organic molecules that have a carboxyl group and amino group, From bonds with one another
Eugenics
Similar genes being created in one population so everyone is the same
Transformation
During this a cell takes DNA from outside the cell, which becomes part of the cells DNA! Bacterium takes in a plasmid
Antibiotic selection
...
BT crops
Make own insecticide
Genetic marker
A gene that makes it possible to distinguish bacteria that carry a plasmid containing foreign DNA from those that don't
Restriction enzyme
Cuts DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotides
Round up ready crops
Contain a gene for round up resistance
Bacteriophage
A virus that infects bacteria
Plasmid
Foreign DNA is first joined to a small circualar molecule (inside bacterium)
Bacteria
Where plasmids are naturally found
Stick ends
Allow two pieces of DNA to be joined together
Biotechnology
...
Genetic engineering
Artificial minipulation of genes
Gene therapy
Altering DNA to cure diseases
Gene enhancement
Attempts to improve a healthy individual
Germline engineering
Changes in the early egg, sperm or embryo, will be passes down to offspring/generations
Somatic cell engineering
Changes in the somatic cells and changes won't be passed down to offsprimg! No effect on egg or sperm
PGD
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis, scan DNA and see which is healthiest
IVF
In-vitro fertilization, makes embryos in petrie dishes
GMO
Gentically modified organism
Transgenic organism
Contains a gene from different spic