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Only haploid chromosome,sperm and egg


Each diplod cell has two sets of chromosomes therefore two of each type of chromosome


A segment of DNA that codes for a particular protein and determine a particular function or trait of heredity


XX-female, XY-male, made up of DNA, linear or thread like structure found in the nucleaus of eukaryotic organisms, found during cell division


Chromosome pairs of 1-22, regular chromosome that does not determine the sex of the individual,karyotype has 44 of these


A picture of someone's chromosomes


Different forms a gene can take

Sex chromosome

23 pairs of chromosomes X&Y, female=xx male=XY, x carries more Genes then y


Having a single set of unpaired chromosomes


Converts diploid cells Into haploid, process in which gametes are made


DNA Molecules produced by combining DNA from different sources


Egg+sperm=diploid(gametes or germ cells) sperm determines sex of the offspring, chromosome number changes 2n->n


Produces diploid somatic cells, Chromosome number stays the same 2n->2n


Two sets of chromosomes, haploid+haploid=diploid (2n)

Gene locus

Location of a chromosome

Somatic cell

220 sets of different gamete, any diploid cell in the body


A genes hereditary information


A change/error in the genetic material; sources of new alleles
Substitution and frame shift


Speed up chemical reaction, most end in "ase"


Long chains of amino acids connected by peptide bonds

Amino acids

Organic molecules that have a carboxyl group and amino group, From bonds with one another


Similar genes being created in one population so everyone is the same


During this a cell takes DNA from outside the cell, which becomes part of the cells DNA! Bacterium takes in a plasmid

Antibiotic selection


BT crops

Make own insecticide

Genetic marker

A gene that makes it possible to distinguish bacteria that carry a plasmid containing foreign DNA from those that don't

Restriction enzyme

Cuts DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotides

Round up ready crops

Contain a gene for round up resistance


A virus that infects bacteria


Foreign DNA is first joined to a small circualar molecule (inside bacterium)


Where plasmids are naturally found

Stick ends

Allow two pieces of DNA to be joined together



Genetic engineering

Artificial minipulation of genes

Gene therapy

Altering DNA to cure diseases

Gene enhancement

Attempts to improve a healthy individual

Germline engineering

Changes in the early egg, sperm or embryo, will be passes down to offspring/generations

Somatic cell engineering

Changes in the somatic cells and changes won't be passed down to offsprimg! No effect on egg or sperm


Preimplantation genetic diagnosis, scan DNA and see which is healthiest


In-vitro fertilization, makes embryos in petrie dishes


Gentically modified organism

Transgenic organism

Contains a gene from different spic

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