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AP World 15, 16, 17 Review
Terms in this set (60)
The Abbasid caliphate fell in
Who overthrew the Abbasid Caliphate
The Ottoman Turks
How did the westerners view the Arabic world?
they avoided it
What happened politically between the Abbasids and ottomans
What civilization attempted to fill the vacuum created in the commercial world?
Chinese: Zheng He (explorer, Ming dynasty)
What happened to Zheng He's expeditions?
Looking at the expense of building the government buildings, the Chinese wanted to spend their money at home (Mongols) instead of exploration- scholar-gentry slightly jealous
Population and the Black Plague
Before, the population was growing, but there wasn't enough food for all the people (why the Columbian Exchange was helpful), 1/3 of european population killed in the Black death
Where did Monarchies begin to take shape
Europe (Spain and Portugal-using compass)
Where did the Renaissance begin?
Italy- close to the outside world and the old Roman culture (surrounded by ruins), access to technology from the middle east (where classical sciences were continued), Italian merchants
Renaissance vs, Medieval
Renaissance: secular worldly things, earthly things, things made more 3D
Medieval: focused on sinfulness and religious art
Besides Italy, a key place for change was
the Iberian Peninsula
What happened to the Balkan Peninsula?
The ottoman empire swallowed it (Greece, Aegean Sea)
Why were Spain and Portugal the first to send people on explorations
they were motivated by a strong Christian faith (especially Spain)
What was the western response to the problem of international trade/ why did they want to avoid Muslims in northern africa?
They wanted to avoid Ottomans because they wanted to control trade themselves (not be the middle man), they sailed down the coast of Africa
Describe the Polynesian Culture
7th century to 1400s changes in the form of migration: they use war canoes (follow the flight pattern of birds) made it past the "society islands" to New Zealand and Hawaii
-adaptable to different temperatures
Describe the Hawaiian culture
regional, war-bases, lots of pigs, more tribal and rural, king based
Describe the Incas and Aztecs
They were pretty much in civil wars, not the greatest time for new people to come in, disease was devastating to the natives
What was happening in the Aztec civilization?
the people didn't like the way they were being ruled-taxes, human sacrifices
What was happening in the Inca civilization?
receding power, fighting of civil war between royal brothers
judging other people by the standards of your own culture (west uses christianity to base the habits of others)
What new area was discovered in the late 1400s?
the Americas (new to europeans)
What shift happened because of the discovery of the Americas?
before the 1450s the indian ocean trade routes were dominated by Cjina and muslims, then the trans-atlantic trade routes were controlled by the west
during the 15th century Europeans upgraded what technology?
better, deeper hulls of ships, compass, moveable type, gunpowder in Africa
What are these upgraded technologies similar to?
the Muslims' dhow, better technology that encouraged them to expand
What country was one of the first to expand?
Portugal-Henry the navigator(wasn't alive when Vasco de Gama reached India by going around Africa, but he set up schools
Where did Vasco de Gama sail?
Where did the Portuguese sail to ?
Where is Columbus from?
Where did Columbus sail to?
The caribbean (Americas)
What also happened in 1492?
the Songhay empire fell-had to do with the introduction of gunpowder
What land was claimed for Spain as a result of Ferdinand Magellan's travels?
the Philippines, very close to China, not that far from South America-important trading hubs
What country is Ferdinand Magellan from?
In what way were the early dutch and british trade expeditions different from spain and portugal?
They established private initiatives (trading companies), less risky because individuals (merchants) invest joint stock, sovereign-can do whatever
Chartered trading companies
British east india trading company-creates first permanent colonies in Africa (cape town)
-Britain and France compete for India
What resulted from the Columbian exchange?
potatoes from the Americas
How was the native American population affected by disease?
over 50% of the population died
What were the cash crops?
sugar, tobacco, and cotton (also chocolate)
Where do we see slavery becoming an important part of the agricultural economy?
slavery in Brazil-coffee plantations, southern colonies had more slavery because there were better conditions(north had bad climate), Spanish encomiendas for labor in the mines
Where was the most significant conversion to Christianity in Asia?
The Philippines were in contact with Magellan and had many more convert (primarily in the northern part)
(similar to Renaissance vs medieval) focused on secular things, humans were the center, human achievements
What did Gutenberg invent?
the printing press
When did the Christian reformation take place and under whom?
1517, Martin Luther (95 theses)
What happened to Martin Luther in response to the 95 theses?
asked to recant, instead he translated the Bible to German while in hiding in Saxony
Emerging Family Style:
focused on the nuclear (immediate) family, age of marriage changes to more even and older, relationship between children and parents became more loving, children freer and more educated, helped with the rights of women and children
question the sale of indulgences, faith alone would gain you salvation, priest should marry (did after he went into hiding), bible should be translated, didn't like monasticism
elector of saxony and lutheran (connection)
protestantism granted them greater independence away from Holy Roman empire and pope, can seize church land and control the churches in them and convert them into protestantism
seized the church- therefore gained land
problem in the west, the middle (merchant) class emerges
proletariat, workers on these agricultural farms
sun was the center of the universe (through planetary observation)
scientific discoveries- John Harvey
observation of circular movement of blood and animals
mathematician, scientific process, gravity
divinity set natural law, doesn't alter the course
Who is the most famous Absolute Monarch?
King Louis 14th (sun king, versille) from france
government regulates economy more, domestic economy stronger, limit imports and more exports (tariffs)
started as an absolute monarchy but became parliamentary
Who was a desport monarch?
Frederick the great-he was crazy
What was the philosophy created in the scientific movement?
law philosophy- people based on natural law and reason
What did Locke argue?
people were naturally good
General social decline was inevitable
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