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54 terms

Ch. 13 Test

STUDY
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oikos, house
The word ecology comes from the Greek word "______" which means "________"
Organism
an individual living thing, such as a alligator
Ecosystem
collection of organisms and nonliving things, such as climate, soil, water, and rocks in the area
Community
collection of all of the different populations that live in one area
Biome
regional or global community or organisms characterized by the climate conditions and plant communities that thrive there
most environmental changes happen over time
Why are long-term studies a key part of a scientist's toolkit?
The movements of elk, bison, bear and wolf population, The location of different vegetation, The amount of snow,
The activities of geysers and other geothermal landforms
Name data from the Virtual Yellowstone ecosystem.
factors like moisture and temperature
What does the amount of biodiversity found in an area depends on?
self nourishment
The word autotroph comes from the Greek phrase meaning "___________"
different
the prefix hetero comes from the Greek word meaning "_______"
Sulfuric Acid
________ is released as a waste product in chemosynthesis
carbon Dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and oxygen
In chemosynthesis. chemical energy is used to change ______, ________, _______, _______ into an energy-rich sugar molecule.
1. Tertiary Consumer
2. Secondary Consumer
3. Primary Consumer
4. Producer
The levels of food chain are........
Kilocalorie
The unit of measure used to describe the amount of energy in an energy
give a more accurate picture of natural interactions
Name a benefit of field experiments
may not help determine actual cause and effect
Name a bad thing about field experiments
Species
a group of living organisms consisting of similar individuals capable of exchanging genes or interbreeding.
Ecology
study of the interactions among living things and their surroundings
Population
a group of the same species that lives in one area
Observation
the act of carefully watching something over time
Direct Survey
process where scientists watch animals either with the naked eye or with tools such as binoculars or scopes used for species that are easy to follow
Indirect Survey
process where scientists search for other signs of an animal's presence such as feces or recent kill sued for species that are difficult to track
Radio Telemetry
method used by scientists to monitor populations where they fit an animal with a radio collar that emits a signal and then use the signal to track the animal's movement used to track a species with a broad range
Mark-Recapture
method used by scientists to estimate the population size of mobile organisms
Quadrats-Sampling
method where quadrats are randomly placed on the study site where scientists identify and count the number of plants within each randomly selected plot
Biotic
living things, such as plants, animals, fungi, and bacteria where each organism plays a key role in the ecosystem
Abiotic
nonliving factor in an ecosystem, such as moisture, temperature, wind, sunlight, soil, and minerals where the balance of the factors determines which living things can survive in a specific environment
Biodiversity
variety of life within an area
Keystone Species
organism that has an unusually large effect on its ecosystem that holds a dynamic ecosystem together
Producer
also called autotroph that is an organism that obtains its energy from abiotic sources, such as sunlight or inorganic chemicals
Consumer
also called heterotrophs that is an organism that obtains its energy and nutrients by eating other organisms
Chemosynthesis
process by which an organism forms carbohydrates using chemicals, rather than light, as an energy source
Food Chain
model that links organism by their feeding relationships that follows the connection between one producer and a single chain of consumers within an ecosystem
Herbivore
organism that only eat plants
Carnivore
organism that only eat animals
Detritivore
organism that eat dead organic matter
Decomposer
detritivores that break down organic matter into simpler compounds
Specialist
consumer that primarily eats one specific organism or feeds on a very small number of organisms
Generalist
consumer that has a varying diet
Tropic Levels
levels of nourishment in a food chain
Food Web
model that shows the complex network of feeding relationships within an ecosystem
Hydrologic Cycle
pathway of water from the atmosphere to Earth's surface, below ground, and back
Biogeochemical Cycle
movement of a chemical through the biological and geological, or living and nonliving, parts of an ecosystem
Carbon Sink
area that stores carbon over a long period of time
Nitrogen Fixation
process by which certain types of bacteria convert gaseous nitrogen compounds
Nodules
small outgrowths on the roots of plants such as beans and peas
Nitrification
process by which bacteria changes ammonium into nitrate
Phosphorus Cycle
Cyclic movement of phosphorus in different chemical forms from the environment to organisms and then back to the environment
Nitrogen Cycle
the transfer of nitrogen from the atmosphere to the soil, to living organisms, and back to the atmosphere
Carbon Cycle
process by which carbon is exchanged among plants, animals, & the environment
Biomass
measure of the total dry mass of organism in a given area
Energy Pyramid
diagram that compares energy used by producers, primary consumers, and other tropic levels where it is shown that available energy distributed amon tropic levels in a ecosystem
Biomass Pyramid
diagram that compares the biomass of different tropic levels within an ecosystem that provides a picture of the mass of producers needed to support primary consumers, etc
Pyramid of Numbers
shows the number of individual orgnisms at each tropic level in an ecosystem