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oikos, house

The word ecology comes from the Greek word "______" which means "________"


an individual living thing, such as a alligator


collection of organisms and nonliving things, such as climate, soil, water, and rocks in the area


collection of all of the different populations that live in one area


regional or global community or organisms characterized by the climate conditions and plant communities that thrive there

most environmental changes happen over time

Why are long-term studies a key part of a scientist's toolkit?

The movements of elk, bison, bear and wolf population, The location of different vegetation, The amount of snow,
The activities of geysers and other geothermal landforms

Name data from the Virtual Yellowstone ecosystem.

factors like moisture and temperature

What does the amount of biodiversity found in an area depends on?

self nourishment

The word autotroph comes from the Greek phrase meaning "___________"


the prefix hetero comes from the Greek word meaning "_______"

Sulfuric Acid

________ is released as a waste product in chemosynthesis

carbon Dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and oxygen

In chemosynthesis. chemical energy is used to change ______, ________, _______, _______ into an energy-rich sugar molecule.

1. Tertiary Consumer
2. Secondary Consumer
3. Primary Consumer
4. Producer

The levels of food chain are........


The unit of measure used to describe the amount of energy in an energy

give a more accurate picture of natural interactions

Name a benefit of field experiments

may not help determine actual cause and effect

Name a bad thing about field experiments


a group of living organisms consisting of similar individuals capable of exchanging genes or interbreeding.


study of the interactions among living things and their surroundings


a group of the same species that lives in one area


the act of carefully watching something over time

Direct Survey

process where scientists watch animals either with the naked eye or with tools such as binoculars or scopes used for species that are easy to follow

Indirect Survey

process where scientists search for other signs of an animal's presence such as feces or recent kill sued for species that are difficult to track

Radio Telemetry

method used by scientists to monitor populations where they fit an animal with a radio collar that emits a signal and then use the signal to track the animal's movement used to track a species with a broad range


method used by scientists to estimate the population size of mobile organisms


method where quadrats are randomly placed on the study site where scientists identify and count the number of plants within each randomly selected plot


living things, such as plants, animals, fungi, and bacteria where each organism plays a key role in the ecosystem


nonliving factor in an ecosystem, such as moisture, temperature, wind, sunlight, soil, and minerals where the balance of the factors determines which living things can survive in a specific environment


variety of life within an area

Keystone Species

organism that has an unusually large effect on its ecosystem that holds a dynamic ecosystem together


also called autotroph that is an organism that obtains its energy from abiotic sources, such as sunlight or inorganic chemicals


also called heterotrophs that is an organism that obtains its energy and nutrients by eating other organisms


process by which an organism forms carbohydrates using chemicals, rather than light, as an energy source

Food Chain

model that links organism by their feeding relationships that follows the connection between one producer and a single chain of consumers within an ecosystem


organism that only eat plants


organism that only eat animals


organism that eat dead organic matter


detritivores that break down organic matter into simpler compounds


consumer that primarily eats one specific organism or feeds on a very small number of organisms


consumer that has a varying diet

Tropic Levels

levels of nourishment in a food chain

Food Web

model that shows the complex network of feeding relationships within an ecosystem

Hydrologic Cycle

pathway of water from the atmosphere to Earth's surface, below ground, and back

Biogeochemical Cycle

movement of a chemical through the biological and geological, or living and nonliving, parts of an ecosystem

Carbon Sink

area that stores carbon over a long period of time

Nitrogen Fixation

process by which certain types of bacteria convert gaseous nitrogen compounds


small outgrowths on the roots of plants such as beans and peas


process by which bacteria changes ammonium into nitrate

Phosphorus Cycle

Cyclic movement of phosphorus in different chemical forms from the environment to organisms and then back to the environment

Nitrogen Cycle

the transfer of nitrogen from the atmosphere to the soil, to living organisms, and back to the atmosphere

Carbon Cycle

process by which carbon is exchanged among plants, animals, & the environment


measure of the total dry mass of organism in a given area

Energy Pyramid

diagram that compares energy used by producers, primary consumers, and other tropic levels where it is shown that available energy distributed amon tropic levels in a ecosystem

Biomass Pyramid

diagram that compares the biomass of different tropic levels within an ecosystem that provides a picture of the mass of producers needed to support primary consumers, etc

Pyramid of Numbers

shows the number of individual orgnisms at each tropic level in an ecosystem

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