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active electrode

electrode used on the area to be treated

alternating current

rapid and interrupted current, flowing first in one direction and then in the opposite direction


unit that measures the amount of an electric current (quantity of electrons flowing through a conductor)


process of forcing liquids into the tissues from the negative toward the positive pole


positive electrode

blue light

theraputic light that should only be used on bare oily skin; contains few heat rays, is the least penetrating and has some germicidal and chemical benefits


any substances having the power to increace the velocity (speed) of a chemical reaction


process of forcing acidic substances into deeper tissues using galvanic current from the positive toward the negative pole


negative electrode

circuit breaker

switch that automatically interrupts or shuts off an electric circuit at the first indication of overload

complete circuit

the path of an electric current from the generating source through conductors and back to its original source


any substance, material, or medium that easily transmits electricity


apparatus that changes direct current to alternating current

direct current (DC)

constant, even-flowing, current that travels in one direction only


process used to soften and emulsify grease deposits and backheads in the hair follicles

electric current

flow of electricity along a conductor


form of energy that, when in motion, exhibits magnetic, chemical or thermal effects; a flow of electrons


applicator for directing the electric current from machine to client's skin

electromagnetic radiation

also called radiant energy because it carries, or radiates, energy through space on waves


special device that prevents excessive current from passing through a circuit

galvanic current

constant and direct current (DC), having a positive and negative pole and producing chemical changes when it passes through the tissues and fluids of the body

inactive electrode

opposite pole from the active electrode

infrared rays

invisible rays that have longer wavelengths, penetrate deeper, and produce more heat than visible light

insulator (noncondutor)

substance that does not easily transmit electricity


process of introducing water soluble products into the skin with the use of electric current, such as the use of the positive and negative poles of a galvanic machine


1,000 watts


one-thousandth of an ampere


currents used in electrical facial and scalp treatments


unit that measures the resistance of an electric current


negative or positive pole of an electric current


apparatus that converts alternating current to direct current

red light

theraputic light used on dry skin in combination with oils and creams; penetrates the deepest and produces the most heat

Tesla high-frequency current

thermal or heat-producing current with a high rate of oscillation or vibration; also called violet ray

ultraviolet (UV) rays

invisible rays that have short wavelengths, are the least penetrating rays, produce chemical effects, and kill germs; also called cold rays or actinic rays

visible light

the primary source of light used in facial and scalp treatments


unit that measures the pressure or force that pushes the flow of electrons forward through a conductor

wall plate

instrument that plugs into an ordinary wall outlet and produces various types of electric currents that are used for facial and scalp treatments


measurement of how much electric energy is being used in one second


distance between successive peaks of electromagnetic waves

white light

referred to as combination light because it is a combination of all visible rays of the spectrum

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