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What is the order of importance of energy sources?

Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, nucleic acids

What are carbohydrates made of?

C, H, O

what is the role of carbohydrates

transporters of energy

what is the most important carbohydrate


what forms does glucose exist in

linear-carbonyl group on C1, circular,

what is a monosaccharide and example

simple sugar molecule, glucose

what makes maltose

2 glucose

what makes lactose

glucose and galactose

what makes sucrose

fructose and glucose

what are the common monosacharides?

glucose, fructose, galactose

what are the common disaccharides?

sucrose, maltose, lactose

what are the limits for the levels of glucose within the bloodstream

between 4 and 8mM

what is hypoglycaemic?

blood glucose below 4mM

what is hyperglycaemic?

blood glucose higher than 8mM

how does the body regulate blood glucose levels?

hormones including glucagon, insulin, norepinephrine (adrenaline)

what is diabetes?

lacking ability to synthesis insulin and therefore unable to control blood sugar levels

what are the most common polysaccharides of glucose?

glycogen, starch, cellulose

what is glycogen

energy reservoir stored in skeletal muscle and liver

where is starch found

only in plants

what type of bond does starch contain

alpha 1,4-glycosidic bond

what type of bond does glycogen contain

alpha 1,4- glycosidic linkages and alpha 1,6- linkages forming side branches

what is the importance of the bonds in glycogen

maximises the number of ends available for digestion by enzymes that catalyse the breakdown of glycogen, more free ends=faster synthesis/break down

what is the difference in cellulose bonds

it uses beta 1,4- glycosidic linkages which humans are unable to break down

what is fibre

cellulose, unable to be digested and is inert as an energy source

what is the isomer of glucose and how does it differ

fructose, carbonyl group on carbon 2

what is an epimer of glucose and how does it differ

galactose, identical except for H and OH groups on C4 rotates 180 degrees

what is the difference in energy released by the monosaccharides glucose, fructose and galactose

none only the pathways differ

when does the body use fats for energy

when the supply of glucose decreases due to dieting, starvation or extended period between eating

what are lipids/fats composed of?

C, H, O

what is an example of a free fatty acid?

palmitic acid

how is palmitic acid composed

16 carbons with a carboxyl group at one end with a long hydrocarbon chain

what is a saturated fatty acid

fatty acid chain with no double bonds- all carbons are saturated with hydrogen atoms

what is an unsaturated fatty acid

contains at least one double bond

what is the notation for palmitic acid


what would 24:3 mean when describing fatty acids

24 carbons long and 3 double bonds

what form do the fats in membranes exist as

diglyceride or diacylglycerol

what are acyl groups

fatty acids chains

what is glycerol

three carbon sugar possessing three alcohol groups

what is a monacylglycerol/monoglyceride

one fatty acid joined to a glycerol molecule

where are triglycerides found

fat storage cells- adipocytes that make up adipose tissue

what are lipids

hydrophobic molecules

what do lipids include

fats, oils, waxes

what is the difference between fats, oils and waxes

composition of the molecules and degree of saturation

what type of fatty acid is more likely to pack together


what is butter composed of

saturated fatty acids

what is vegetable oil composed of

unsaturated fatty acids

what are fatty acids oxidised/broken down to

carbon dioxide and water and energy

why are fatty acids an efficient form of storing energy

molecule is highly reduced, light-less dense than water, hydrophobic- doesn't need to be dissolved in water for storage, completely oxidised to form Co2 doesn't form toxic products

what are steroids

lipids that are formed from four or five ring structures

what do steroids include

cholesterol, hormones-testosterone, progesterone, oestradiol

what are the functions of lipids

energy, storage, insulation, hormones

when do you break down proteins for energy

when you are starving and have used up sugars and fats

what functions do proteins serve

enzymes, transport (haemoglobin), storage, movement, structure, signalling (insulin, glucagon), regulatory, protective (immunoglobulins, antibodies)

what are proteins made of

amino acids joined together in a long chain, C, H, O, N, S

how many amino acids are found in proteins


how are amino acids joined together

peptide bonds

what is a dipeptide

protein with two amino acids joined together

what is an oligopeptide

between 10-20 amino acids joined together

what is a polypeptide

longer than oligopeptide, more than 20

what is the simplest amino acid


what is the grouping of amino acids

acidic, basic, polar, non polar, hydrophobic

what are the 2 acidic amino acids

aspartic, glutamic

what are aspartate and glutamate

the ionised form of the acidic amino acids

how do aspartic acid and glutamic acid exist under physiological condition

deprotonated and charged

what is the symbol for aspartic acid

Asp or D

what is the symbol for glutamic acid

Glu, E

what are the 3 basic amino acids

histidine, lysine, arginine

what is the symbol for histidine

His, H

symbol for arginine

Arg, R

symbol for lysine

Lys, K

characteristics o basic amino acids

polar, positively charged below pKa, hydrophilic

what are the non polar amino acids

leucine, proline, mehtionine, tryptophan, isoleucine, phenylalanine, valine, alanine

what are the polar uncharged amino acids

glycine, serene, threonine, cysteine, asparagine, glutamine, tyrosine

what are the 3 aromatic amino acids

phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan

how can we detect the aromatic amino acids

their ability to absorb UV light

what is the primary structure of proteins

order of amino acids occurring in a protein chain

what is the secondary structure of proteins

type of folding, beta sheets or alpha helix

where are beta sheets usually found

inside of protein structures

what is the tertiary structure of proteins

shape of protein when alpha helices and beta sheets coil up and form a 3D structure, interactions of secondary structure with surrounding media

do all proteins possess quaternary structure

no but some proteins do not function without interacting with another identical protein

what is a homodimeric protein and example

2 interacting subunits of the same protein, alcohol dehydrogenase

are nucleic acids used as an energy source


what are nucleic acids made of

C, H, O, N, P

what are 3 functions of nucleic acids?

hereditary material, protein synthesis, energy transporters

all living cells except what contain DNA

mature red blood cells

which organelle has its own circular DNA


what are nucleic acids

polymers of nucleotides

what is a nucleotide composed of

sugar, base, phosphate group

what is the difference in sugar between DNA/RNA

dna-deoxyribose, rna-ribose

what are the pyrimidine bases

c, u, t

how do pyrimidines and purines differ in structure

pyrimidines are composed of single hexagonal ring, purines are double rings

what is a nucleoside

sugar and base

are AMP, ATP, ADP nucleosides or nucleotides


what is Chargaff's Rule

the ratio of A:T is 1:1 and same for G:C

what bonding makes up nucleotides


what bonding holds the strands of DNA double helix together

Hydrogen bonding

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