Competing values framework
-two dimensions: (1) focus inward or outward; (2) preference for flexibility and discretion or control and stability.
Clan-internal focus and values flexiblity
effectiveness is achieved by encouraging collaboration
Adhocracy-external focus and values flexiblity
think outside the box
Hierarchy-internal focus and values stability and control
formalized and very structured
effectiveness is effciency, timeliness and reliability
market-strong external focus and calues stability and control
driven by competition
desire to deliver results
paid for performance
culture is significantly correlated with employee behavior and attitudes-satisfaction, commitment, intentions to stay, quality of communication, postive managerial relationships.
(KEY POINT) Congruence between an individual's values and the organizational's values was associated with organziational commitment, job satisfaction, intention to quit, and turnover.
THERE IS NOT A CLEAR PATTERN OF RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND OUTCOMES SUCH AS SERVICE QUALITY, CUSTOMER SATISFACTION, AND AN ORGANIZATION'S FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE
Mergers frequently fail due to incomptible cultures