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14 terms

unit 7

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radioisotope
an isotope that is unstable and emits radiation
radioactivity
the spontaneous emission of radiation by an unstable atomic nucleus
alpha particles
high-speed, positively charged particles emitted during the decay of some radioactive elements
beta particles
a negatively charged particle (an electron) emitted from the nucleus of an atom during radioactive decay.
gamma rays
high-energy radiation that has no electrical charge and no mass, is not deflected by electric or magnetic fields, usually accompanies alpha and beta radiation, and accounts for most of the energy lost during radioactive decay
nuclear decay reaction
a reaction which occurs when an element is bombarded with particles and releases radiation
nuclear equation
a type of equation that shows the atomic number and mass number of the particles involved
half-life
the amount of time it takes for one half of a sample of a radioisotope to decay
particle accelerator
a machine that moves atomic nuclei at higher and higher speeds until they crash into one another, sometimes forming heavier elements
transuranium elements
93-118-- synthesized in the lab
rem
roentgen equivalent for men- calculated to include the amount of energy transferred and the sensitivity of the body to that type of radiation
dosimeter
a device that measures the total amount of radiation that a person is exposed to
geiger counter
the most common instrument used to detect radiation in the environment
fission
a large nucleus is split into two smaller nuclei of approximately equal masses