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chemical bond

the force that holds two atoms together; may form by the attraction of a positive ion for a negative ion or by sharing electrons


an ion that has a positive charge


an ion that has a negative charge

ionic bond

the electrostatic force that holds oppositely charged particles together in an ionic compound

formula unit

the simplest ratio of ions represented in an ionic compound

monatomic ion

an ion formed from only one atom

polyatomic ion

an ion made up of two or more atoms bonded together that acts as a single unit with a net charge

covalent bond

a chemical bond that results from the sharing of valence electrons


an acid that contains hydrogen and an oxyanion

exothermic bond

a chemical reaction or process in which more energy is released than is required to break bonds in the initial reactants

endothermic bond

a chemical reaction or process in which a greater amount of energy is required to break the existing bonds in the reactants than is released when the new bonds form in the product molecules

electron sea model

proposes that all metal atoms in a metallic solid contribute their valence electrons to form a "sea" of electrons, and can explain properties of metallic solids such as malleability, conduction, and ductility


the starting substance in a chemical reaction


a substance formed in a chemical reaction


the number written in front of a reactant or product; describes the lowest whole-number ratio of the amounts of all reactants and products

synthesis reaction

two or more substances react to yield a single product

combustion reaction

a chemical reaction that occurs when a substance reacts with oxygen, releasing energy in the form of heat and light


a solid produced during a chemical reaction in a solution

single-replacement reaction

occurs when the atoms of one element replace the atoms of another element in a compound

decomposition reaction

occurs when a single compound breaks down into two or more elements or new compounds

aqueous solution

a solution in which the solvent is water

Avagadro's number

the number 6.0221367 x 10^23, which is the number of representative particles in a mole, and can be rounded to three significant digits 6.02 x 10^23


the SI base unit used to measure the amount of a substance, abbreviated mol; the number of carbon atoms in exactly 12g of pure carbon; one mole is the amount of a pure substance that contains 6.02 x 1^23 representative particles

empirical formula

a formula that shows the smallest whole-number ratio of the elements of a compound, and might or might not be the same as the actual molecular formula.


a compound that has a specific number of water molecules bound to its atoms

molecular formula

a formula that specifies the actual number of atoms of each element in one molecule of a substance

mole ratio

a ratio between the numbers of moles of any two of the substances in a balanced chemical equation.


the study of quantitative relationships between the amounts of reactants used and amounts of products formed by a chemical reaction. based on the law of conservation of mass.

molar mass

the mass in grams of one mole of any pure substance

Boyle's Law

states that the volume of a fixed amount of gas held at a constant temperature varies inversely with the pressure

Charles's Law

states that the volume of a given amount of gas is directly proportional to its kelvin temperature at a constant pressure

conversion factor

a ratio of equivalent values used to express the same quantity in different units; is always equal to 1 and changes the units of a quantity without changing its value

noble gas

an extremely unreactive group 18 element

diatomic molecules

molecules consisting of only 2 atoms which are covalently bonded together - there can be single, double or triple bonds

skeleton equations

uses chemical formulas instead of words to show reactants and products

word equations

statements which use words to describe a chemical reaction

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