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the force that holds two atoms together; may form by the attraction of a positive ion for a negative ion or by sharing electrons
the electrostatic force that holds oppositely charged particles together in an ionic compound
an ion made up of two or more atoms bonded together that acts as a single unit with a net charge
a chemical reaction or process in which more energy is released than is required to break bonds in the initial reactants
a chemical reaction or process in which a greater amount of energy is required to break the existing bonds in the reactants than is released when the new bonds form in the product molecules
electron sea model
proposes that all metal atoms in a metallic solid contribute their valence electrons to form a "sea" of electrons, and can explain properties of metallic solids such as malleability, conduction, and ductility
the number written in front of a reactant or product; describes the lowest whole-number ratio of the amounts of all reactants and products
a chemical reaction that occurs when a substance reacts with oxygen, releasing energy in the form of heat and light
occurs when the atoms of one element replace the atoms of another element in a compound
occurs when a single compound breaks down into two or more elements or new compounds
the number 6.0221367 x 10^23, which is the number of representative particles in a mole, and can be rounded to three significant digits 6.02 x 10^23
the SI base unit used to measure the amount of a substance, abbreviated mol; the number of carbon atoms in exactly 12g of pure carbon; one mole is the amount of a pure substance that contains 6.02 x 1^23 representative particles
a formula that shows the smallest whole-number ratio of the elements of a compound, and might or might not be the same as the actual molecular formula.
a formula that specifies the actual number of atoms of each element in one molecule of a substance
a ratio between the numbers of moles of any two of the substances in a balanced chemical equation.
the study of quantitative relationships between the amounts of reactants used and amounts of products formed by a chemical reaction. based on the law of conservation of mass.
states that the volume of a fixed amount of gas held at a constant temperature varies inversely with the pressure
states that the volume of a given amount of gas is directly proportional to its kelvin temperature at a constant pressure
a ratio of equivalent values used to express the same quantity in different units; is always equal to 1 and changes the units of a quantity without changing its value
molecules consisting of only 2 atoms which are covalently bonded together - there can be single, double or triple bonds
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