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36 terms

chem final vocab

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chemical bond
the force that holds two atoms together; may form by the attraction of a positive ion for a negative ion or by sharing electrons
cation
an ion that has a positive charge
anion
an ion that has a negative charge
ionic bond
the electrostatic force that holds oppositely charged particles together in an ionic compound
formula unit
the simplest ratio of ions represented in an ionic compound
monatomic ion
an ion formed from only one atom
polyatomic ion
an ion made up of two or more atoms bonded together that acts as a single unit with a net charge
covalent bond
a chemical bond that results from the sharing of valence electrons
oxyacid
an acid that contains hydrogen and an oxyanion
exothermic bond
a chemical reaction or process in which more energy is released than is required to break bonds in the initial reactants
endothermic bond
a chemical reaction or process in which a greater amount of energy is required to break the existing bonds in the reactants than is released when the new bonds form in the product molecules
electron sea model
proposes that all metal atoms in a metallic solid contribute their valence electrons to form a "sea" of electrons, and can explain properties of metallic solids such as malleability, conduction, and ductility
reactant
the starting substance in a chemical reaction
product
a substance formed in a chemical reaction
coefficient
the number written in front of a reactant or product; describes the lowest whole-number ratio of the amounts of all reactants and products
synthesis reaction
two or more substances react to yield a single product
combustion reaction
a chemical reaction that occurs when a substance reacts with oxygen, releasing energy in the form of heat and light
precipitate
a solid produced during a chemical reaction in a solution
single-replacement reaction
occurs when the atoms of one element replace the atoms of another element in a compound
decomposition reaction
occurs when a single compound breaks down into two or more elements or new compounds
aqueous solution
a solution in which the solvent is water
Avagadro's number
the number 6.0221367 x 10^23, which is the number of representative particles in a mole, and can be rounded to three significant digits 6.02 x 10^23
mole
the SI base unit used to measure the amount of a substance, abbreviated mol; the number of carbon atoms in exactly 12g of pure carbon; one mole is the amount of a pure substance that contains 6.02 x 1^23 representative particles
empirical formula
a formula that shows the smallest whole-number ratio of the elements of a compound, and might or might not be the same as the actual molecular formula.
hydrate
a compound that has a specific number of water molecules bound to its atoms
molecular formula
a formula that specifies the actual number of atoms of each element in one molecule of a substance
mole ratio
a ratio between the numbers of moles of any two of the substances in a balanced chemical equation.
stoichiometry
the study of quantitative relationships between the amounts of reactants used and amounts of products formed by a chemical reaction. based on the law of conservation of mass.
molar mass
the mass in grams of one mole of any pure substance
Boyle's Law
states that the volume of a fixed amount of gas held at a constant temperature varies inversely with the pressure
Charles's Law
states that the volume of a given amount of gas is directly proportional to its kelvin temperature at a constant pressure
conversion factor
a ratio of equivalent values used to express the same quantity in different units; is always equal to 1 and changes the units of a quantity without changing its value
noble gas
an extremely unreactive group 18 element
diatomic molecules
molecules consisting of only 2 atoms which are covalently bonded together - there can be single, double or triple bonds
skeleton equations
uses chemical formulas instead of words to show reactants and products
word equations
statements which use words to describe a chemical reaction