24 terms

Miller Levine Biology Chapter 18

Chapter 18: Classification
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taxonomy
the process of classifying organisms and assigning each organism each organism a universally accepted name
binomial nomenclature
the two-part scientific name of organisms
genus
a group of closely related species
taxon
each level of Linnaeus's hierarchal system of classification
family
a group of genera with similar characteristics
order
a broad taxonomic group of families
class
a taxon of orders
phylum
a taxonomic group of several different classes
kingdom
the largest and most inclusive taxonomic category
phylogeny
study of evolutionary relationships among organisms
evolutionary classification
the strategy of grouping organisms together based on their evolutionary history
derived characters
characteristics that appear in recent parts of a lineage but not in its older members
cladogram
a diagram that shows the evolutionary relationships among a group of organisms
molecular clock
a model that uses DNA comparisons to estimate the length of time that two species have been evolving independently
domain
a more inclusive category than any other - larger than a kingdom
Bacteria
domain with unicellular prokaryotic organisms whose cell walls contain peptidoglycan
Eubacteria
the kingdom that the domain Bacteria corresponds with
Archaea
domain with unicellular prokaryotic organisms whose cell walls do not contain peptidoglycan
Archaebacteria
the kingdom that the domain Archaea corresponds with
Eukarya
domain that consists of all animals with a nucleus
Protista
kingdom under domain Eukarya composed of organisms that cannot be classified as animals, plants, or fungi
Fungi
kingdom under domain Eukarya composed of heterotrophic organisms that feed on dead or decaying matter
Plantae
kingdom under domain Eukarya composed of multicellular organisms that are photosynthetic autotrophs
Animalia
kingdom under domain Eukarya composed of mainly multicellular heterotrophic organisms without cell walls
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