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Bio 110 Final Exam PART 2 edited
Terms in this set (62)
30. What are carbohydrates?
A carbohydrate is an organic compound that consists only of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, usually with a hydrogen:oxygen atom.
Monosacharides are the simplest sugars,
You also have disaccharides, polysaccharides.
31. What is an isomer?
Each of two or more compounds with the same formula but a different arrangement of atoms in the molecule and different properties.
Each of two or more atomic nuclei that have the same atomic number and the same mass number but different energy states
32. What are examples of monosaccharides?
Ribose, Deoxyribose, Pentose, Hexose, Glucose
33. Lactose is a combination of what two molecules?
glucose and another small sugar, called galactose
34. A complex polymer built of monosaccharides is called what?
35. Glycogen belongs in the class of molecules known as what?
Monosacharide, a Carbohydrate
36. Sucrose (table sugar) and lactose (the sugar found in milk) are examples of what?
37. What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids?
Saturated fatty acids have carbons joined via single bonds only, Unsaturated have both double bonds and single bonds between the carbon atoms.
Saturated fatty acids have already formed the maximum number of double hydrogen bonds, while unsaturated ones have not
38. The four most abundant elements in living organisms are what?
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
40. What are the structural differences between DNA and RNA?
RNA has the sugar ribose, it is single stranded and has the base U instead of T.....DNA has the sugar deoxyribose, it is double stranded and has the Base T not U
45. What are the important biological functions of lipids?
They include fatty acids, phospholipids, and steroids for fat insulation, fatty acids, saturated vs unsaturated for energy storage, cushioning, insulation, cell membranes, hormoones
46. Glycoproteins are membrane proteins with bound to what?
proteins with covalently linked carbohydrate are bound to the plasma membrane
1. What is the function of smooth endoplasmic reticulum?
Lacks ribes, continuous with rough er, diverse in metabolic processes. Increased SA, detoxify potentially harmful chemicals, carb metabolism, accumulation of Calcium ions to calcium gets to the ER lubmen, enzymes to produce hormones, syntheisis of phospholipids, part of the "system" , network of membranes that form flattened, fluid filled tubules or cisternae.
2. Where are proteins made on the ribosome further modified?
Sorting, processing and packaging in the cell occurs where....
Golgi apparatus is integral in modifying, sorting, and packaging these macromolecules for cell secretion (exocytosis) or use within the cell. It primarily modifies proteins delivered from the rough endoplasmic reticulum but is also involved in the transport of lipids around the cell, and the creation of lysosomes. In this respect it can be thought of as similar to a post office; it packages and labels items which it then sends to different parts of the cell.
4. What functions are performed by plant vacuoles?
Store large amounts of water. Store carbs, proteins, and fats.
5. Which organelle in a cell plays an important role in apoptosis, or programmed cell death?
6. What cellular structures are found in plant but not animal cells?
A cell wall; this is a thick layer around the outside of the plant cell made of a substance called cellulose. The job of the cell wall is to strengthen and support the cell. 2) A central vacuole; this is a space in the centre of the cell filled with a watery solution called cell sap. The sap contains salts, sugars, amino acids and wastes. As well as storing these substances the vacuole helps to support the cell. 3) Chloroplasts; these are structures containing the green pigment called chlorophyll, which traps sunlight. Their job is to make food for the plant by the process of photosynthesis.
7. What is the function of the nucleus of eukaryotic cells?
With chormosomes composed of DNA and protein called chromatin. control what goes in and out of the cell......cell growth and reproduction as cell division occurs here......regulates gene expression
8. An extensive system of internal membranes where carbohydrates and lipids are manufactured, and proteins are made prior to being exported from the cell is called?
9. Oxidative metabolism takes place where in the cell?
10. What are the key differences between prokaryotic and eukaryrganic moleculestic cells?
In Euks: DNA housed in true nucleus, compartmentalization, organelle subcellular organization, membrane bound specific shape, size, organization of cells varys a lot among species and different cells types of same species. VS: PROS: Simple cell structure that lacks membrane enclosed nucleus, bacteria and archae.
11. What is meant by the term "fluid mosaic model"?
Fluid mosaic is a term used to describe the current model of the cell membrane.Cell membranes are basically double layers (bilayers) of molecules called phospholipids. Floating' in the phospholipid bilayer are molecules of protein. a mosaic is a structure made up of many different parts. Viewed from above the membrane would look something like a mosaic - a 'sea' of lipid with many 'islands' of protein.The lipid bilayer is not rigid, and the lipid and protein molecules are able to move sideways in the membrane ie the membrane is fluid.
12. What is the difference between transmembrane and peripheral proteins?
They have 1 more regions that are physically embedded In the hydrophobic region of the phospholipid bilayer.
is a spontaneous movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration through a semi-permeable membrane. (ex. teaflavoring moving from an area of high to low concentration in hot water.)
is the spontaneous net movement of water across a semipermeable membrane from a region of low solute concentration to a solution with a high solute concentration, down a solute concentration gradient....Moves DOWN concentration gradient
No input of energy, examples include passive and facilitated diffusion
also known as passive-mediated transport) is a process of passive transport (with this passive transport aided by integral membrane proteins. Facilitated diffusion is the spontaneous passage of molecules or ions across a biological membrane passing through specific transmembrane integral proteins. The facilitated diffusion may occur either across biological membranes or through aqueous compartments of an organism.
Active transport is the movement of a substance against its concentration gradient (from low to high concentration).
14. What type of transport protein can move 2 or more different molecules in opposite directions?
15. What is pinocytosis?
Cell drinking, formation of vesicles from plasma membrane where cells internalize extracellular fluid like in the intestine lining.
16. A tool that enables researchers to study the structure and function of cells is called what?
17. The cell wall is a common feature of what type of cell?
plant and pros
18. During a period of low water availability, which prokaryotic structure would protect a cell from dessication?
19. This organelle is responsible for the biosynthesis of proteins that are destined for secretion by the cell.
20. This organelle is important for the detoxification of alcohol in the liver?
21. What is the major lipid found in membranes?
22. What are the functions of cellular membranes?
a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment. The cell membrane is selectively permeable to ions and organic molecules and controls the movement of substances in and out of cells. It basically protects the cell from outside forces. It consists of the lipid bilayer with embedded proteins. Cell membranes are involved in a variety of cellular processes such as cell adhesion, ion conductivity and cell signaling and serve as the attachment surface for several extracellular structures, including the cell wall, glycocalyx, and intracellular cytoskeleton. Cell membranes can be artificially reassembled.
23. The release of insulin from pancreatic cells occurs by what method?
24. What are two general factors that determine the fate of a chemical reaction in living cells?
Direction and rate
25. Know the definition of kinetic and potential energy.In order
_____ is associated with movement, like a muscle moving. These are in order... _______ is due to the structure or location like a chemical in molecular bonds.
26. What is the first and second law of thermodynamics?
The First law: Conservation of energy where energy cannot be created or destroyed however it can be transformed form 1 type to another. The second: The transfer of transformation of energy from 1 form to another leads to anin crease of entropy where there is a degree of disorder of a system, increases.
27. What is the amount of available energy that can be used to promote change and do work called?
28. What is endergonic and exergonic?
Endergonic is G is greater than O, the positive free energy change, not spontaneous, Positive G. Exergonic is G is less than 0, negative free energy change, spontaneous, occurs without input of additional energy, free energy change or g change is negative
29. How does an enzyme work to catalyze a reaction?
It lowers the energy barrier needed for reactants to achieve the transition state or lowers the energy of activation of a reaction.
30. What is the effect of altering the three-dimensional structure of an enzyme?
prevent the substrate from binding the enzymes active site
32. Know the general steps of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction.
substrates bind to enzyme → enzyme undergoes conformational changes → substrates are converted to products → products are released.
33. What is anabolism and catabolism?
One way of categorizing metabolic processes, whether at the cellular, organ or organism level is as 'anabolic' or as 'catabolic', which is the opposite. Anabolism is the set of metabolic pathways that construct molecules from smaller units. These actions require energy. eg, protein synthesis, photosynthesis.Catabolism is the set of metabolic pathways which break down molecules into smaller units and release energy. In catabolism, large molecules such as polysaccharides, fatty acids, nucleic acids and proteins are broken down into smaller units such as monosaccharides, fatty acids, nucleotides and amino acids, respectively. eg.respiration,digestion
34. During biochemical regulation of metabolic pathways, how would one overcome the effects of a competitive inhibitor on enzyme activity?
Increase the amount of substrate for the enzyme
35. Know the equation for photosynthesis
equation for photosynthesis: 6 co2 + 6 h2o -----> c6h12o6 + 6 o2
equation for cellular respiration:
c6h12o6 + 6 o2 ------> 6 co2 + 6 h2o
36. What are the final by-products of glucose oxidation during aerobic cell respiration?
ATP, Heat, and Carbon dioxide.
37. What is glycolysis? What are the end products of glycolysis? How many ATP is produced? Where in the cell does glycolysis takes place?
production of energy from carbohydrates: the breakdown of glucose to pyruvate, with the release of usable energy. 4 ATP produced-2 ATP consume=2 ATP net, in the cytoplasm of the cell
39. How many ATP and NADH molecules are produced from each molecule of glucose in the citric acid cycle only?
In my textbook it says that 1 molecule of ATP and 3 molecules of NADH are made from 1 molecule of pyruvate, via the citric acid cycle. However, since the question is asking for 1 molecule of GLUCOSE, the answer would be 2 ATP and 6 NADH since the oxidation of glucose produces TWO molecules of pyruvate, the amount of ATP and NADH would have to be doubled.
40. What is an autotroph?
or producer, is an organism that produces complex organic compounds (such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins) from simple substances present in its surroundings . For example using energy from light (by photosynthesis) or inorganic chemical reactions (chemosynthesis). They are the producers in a food chain, such as plants on land or algae in water. They are able to make their own food
41. Organisms that utilize light energy to make organic molecules from inorganic molecules are called?
Photo=light Auto = inorganic troph = nourishment
42. Organisms that consume organic molecules to live are called?
43. In what portion of the plant cell does photosynthesis takes place?
the leaves of the plant. The leaves absorb energy from the sun light to make the energy needed for the plants to produce their food.
44. What is the main structure for gas exchange in plants is called?
45. What is the product of the light reaction in photosynthesis?
Adenosine triphosphate, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+), NADPH, and oxygen. More technically, non-cyclic photophosphorylation produces ATP (through an electron transport chain) for use in the cell and NADPH for use in the Calvin Cycle (light-independent reactions).
46. What are the primary functions of both photosystems I and II?
electron trnasfer is the primary function of photosystem I while generation of ATP along with the splitting of water molecule and electron transfer is the primary function of photosystem II
47. Where does the Calvin cycle occur in a photosynthetic cell?
stroma of the chloroplasts.
48. What is photorespiration?
is a process of metabolic pathway that consumes oxygen, releasescarbon dioxide, generates no ATP, and decreases photosynthetic output; generally occurs on hot, dry, bright days, when stomata close and the oxygen concentration in the leaf exceeds that of carbon dioxide.
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