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WH (Ch. 8)
Terms in this set (34)
List 2 reasons for the rise of the bishop of Rome to prominence over other bishops
1.The bishop of Rome presided over the largest and wealthiest city in the empire
2.With the collapse of the western empire in the fifth century, the Roman bishop became one of the few remaining sources of stability in the west
What did bishop Leo I of Rome do that caused the people to call him "papa" (pope, meaning Father-Protector)?
He turned away Attila, the leader of the Huns, & persuaded him to spare the city of Rome
What was the Petrine theory?
The theory that Christ made Peter the 1st pope and gave him supreme authority over the church on the earth. (Peter became the substitute of Christ on earth & as bishop of Rome, he transferred his office with all of his authority to those who would succeed him)
What term describes a religious act necessary for salvation that automatically grants spiritual benefit to the one who does it?
(as in the Roman sacramental system)
List & briefly describe the 7 Sacraments
1.Baptism-"Washing away original sin"
2.Confirmation-Brings a person into full fellowship with the church and confers the H.Spirit upon him
3.Penance-Earning of forgiveness from sin committed after baptism
4.Holy Eucharist-Communion taken during mass in which transubstantiation is believed to take place
6.Holy Orders-Ordaining of a person to priesthood
7.Extreme Unction-Grants a dying or extremely ill person comfort and absolution from any remaining sin
Into what 2 groups were the members of the Roman Church divided?
What two divisions of clergy was made in the RCC?
1.Secular-Conducted religious services, administered the sacraments, and supervised the business and property of the church
2.Regular-Lived in monastic communities under strict regulations
Name 2 English monks who were known for their missionary activity
1. Patrick-took the gospel to Ireland
2. Boniface-"Apostle of the Germans"
What were the Germanic people called?
Who was known as the "King of the Franks" ?
What palace official became the real power behind the Frankish throne?
Mayor of the palace (or "major domo")
At what battle and in what year did Charles Martel defeat the Muslims?
Battle of Tours in 732
What was Charles Martel's nickname?
Under whose rule did the Frankish empire reach its peak?
What people group were the Lombards?
Name and identify the treaty that split the Carolingian Empire into 3 parts, and identify the brothers and the portion of the kingdom which they received
Treaty of Verdun.
1.East-Louis the German
2.West-Charles the Bald
3.In between the E/W-Lothair
What new style of writing developed under Charlemagne?
What is the current people group that was once named the "Magyars"?
Who were the most feared invaders, (they were also called Norsemen)?
What was land granted by kings to nobles in return for their service called?
What place was the center of life for the nobility?
What 2 stages of preparation did a young man go through to become a knight?
Name the strict code that governed knightly behavior
What 2 types of activities were part of the typical tournaments among knights?
What did a vassal agree to supply on special occasions (such as when his lord's eldest son became a knight or when his eldest daughter was married)?
Financial payments, called aids
What is the title of the ceremony in which a man becomes a vassal, thus, becoming eligible for a fief?
Where did the vast majority of people in the Middle Ages live?
What 2 buildings dominated the manor?
1.the lord's residence
2.the village church
Name the term that described the peasant laborers on the manor
Why did the peasants work for their lord and give him part of the crops they raised?
For the use of his land and its resources.
What was the demesne?
Part of the land which was reserved for the lord
What was a two-field system?
Villagers planted crops on only half of the land, leaving the other 1/2 to lie fallow for a yr or 2.
What is the term used when an established pattern of rotating planting among three fields takes place?
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