Bio Chapter 13-16
Terms in this set (75)
What does taxonomy mean?
A method in classifying/grouping and naming organisms
What is the two-part scientific name called?
What is the first part of a binomial?
What is the second part of binomial?
Distinguish the species
What are fossils?
Leftover bones or impression of an organism that is preserved or molded/cast into a rock
What is natural selection?
A process to explore how and why life changes over time
How is natural selection different from artificial selection?
In natural selection the traits are passed down at random and occur naturally while artificial selection humans have modified species through selection and breeding, it does not occur randomly or naturally.
What is evolution?
A change in frequency of inheritable traits within a population over time
What are fossil records?
An ordered sequence of fossils in rocks that allows scientists to see a passage of time
What is homology?
Between two or more different species there is a similarity in characteristics from a common ancestor
What is molecular biology?
The study of genes and gene expression
Two Key Points of Natural Selection
1. Natural Selection is an editing process, NOT a creative process
2. Natural Selection is dependent on time and place and favors the characteristics in a population that fit the current environment
What is mutation? Why are they unavoidable?
An altered nucleotide sequence that is unavoidable because DNA copying is prone to errors
What is the bottle neck effect?
A large amount of the population is gone, which results in a small population that does not have same genetic makeup
What is the founder effect?
Genetic drift resulting from the establishment of a
small and the new population gene pool differs from the original population
Shifts the overall makeup of a population by selecting in favor of ONE phenotype
(Rat population over time in lab 4- all black)
Balance between two or more contrasting phenotypes
(If all colors of rats were equally present)
( Grey rats, combo colour)
Some individuals w/ certain traits (phenotypes) are more likely than others to obtain a mate
Rapid decrease in amount of life on Earth
Process by which one species splits into two or more
What are the two species concept methods?
Physical Similarity and Reproductive Compatibility
What are the 5 pre-zygotic reproductive barriers?
Temporal ( different times/seasons)
Habitat (different habitats)
Behavioral (little/no sexual attraction)
Mechanical (structural differences)
Gametic (gamete fail to unite)
What are the 3 post-zygotic reproductive barriers?
Red. Hybrid Viability (fail to reach sexual maturity)
Red. Hybrid Fertility (fail to produce functional gametes)
Hybrid Breakdown (offspring is feeble or stable)
What is allopatric speciation?
Prevents two or more groups from mating with each other regularly, eventually causing that lineage to speciate (usually geographical)
What is sympatric speciation?
When new species evolve from a single ancestral species while inhabiting the same geographic region.
What is evo-devo
As you develop into a more fetal organism, specific traits begin to appear and have changes
( chimpanzee skulls and human skulls in fetus)
What is systematics?
Includes classifying organisms AND finding evolutionary relationships
What is the phylogenetic tree?
Shows evolutionary relationships among species
What is analogy?
Common structures but have DIFFERENT origins from coevolution
What are the three shapes of prokaryotic cells?
Why can bacterial populations evolve so quickly?
1. Reproduce at quick rates- Binary Fission
2. Each time DNA replicate mutations occurs and creates genetic variation
What are endospores?
Specialized cells that can survive harsh conditions and can quickly absorb water and resume growth
Example of symbiosis between bacteria and organism?
Vibrio Fischeri- produces light that squid use for camouflage
What are the two domains of prokaryotes?
Bacteria and Archae
Two reasons why prokaryotes are beneficial?
-Recycling of chemical elements and cycle
-Breakdown of organic waste and dead organism, and convert waste into usable elements
How do most pathogenic bacterial cause disease?
Toxin production, poison, invasive
What are the protists groups?
Protozoan, unicellular and colonial algae, slime molds and seaweeds
What is endosymbiosis?
Organelles that were once prokaryotic cell living inside larger host cells
(mitochondria and chloroplasts)
3 ways protists obtain their food
Heterotrophs (other organisms)
Parasite (living host)
Giardia (water-borne parasite)
Amoebas(flexible and amoebic dysentery)
Plasmodium (maleria and other diseases)
Ciliates (free-living and nonparasitic)
What do Slime Molds have/do to help them feed easier?
Fina filaments that take in bacteria and bits of dead organic matter and enlarges itself so more surface area to take in more (multicellular)
What is the life cycle of a slime mold?
1. Feeding stage: solitary amoeboid cells, function as independent cells
2. When food in short supply the amoeboid cells come together to form slug shape that moves and functions together
3. Colony extends a stalk and develops into a multicellular reproductive structure.
How do cellular slime molds differ from plasmodial slime molds?
In feeding stage, a plasmodial mold is a single cell with many nuclei
Examples of Unicellular and Colonial Algae
Dinoflagellates- pink/orangish toxins in water
Diatoms-food reserves in oil form
What type of algae is the closest related to land plants
Characteristics of Kingdom Bacteria
prokaryotes,unicellular, non-motile and motile
Characteristics of Kingdom Plantae
eukaryotes, multicellular, autotrophs, stationary, photosynthesis
Characteristics of Kingdom Animalia
multicellular, heterotrops, ingestive, consumers
Characteristics of Protists
eukaryotes, uni-cellular, some multicellular
Characteristics of Kingdom Fungi
unicellular/multicellular,heterotrophic, absorptive, stationary
How does fungi obtain nutrients?
Absorption and digest food outside its body by secreting powerful digestive enzymes into food
What are the two sources of ENERGY that all organisms use one or the other?
1. Phototrophs: photosynthesis (light)
2. Chemotrophs: harvests energy stored in chemicals
What are the two sources of CARBON that all organisms use one or the other?
1. From carbon dioxide (AUTOTROPHS)
2. Obtain carbon dioxide from organic compounds present in other organisms (HETEROTROPHS)
What do Fungi, Plants, and Prokaryotes all have?
What are biofilms?
A complex association of microbes of all types
What are cyanobacteria?
ONLY group of prokaryotes that is plant-like and oxygen-generating photosynthesis
What are cyanobacteria called?
What type of protist is Unikonts?
Slime Mold and gave rise to Fungi and Animals
What are archaeplastids?
All autotrophs and gave rise to red algae, green algae and land plants
What is evolutionary classification?
A way scientists classify organisms based on evolutionary beginnings
(find lines of evolutionary descent)
What are Cladograms?
Diagrams that show evolutionary relationships
Big change through time
grouping based on similarities
Who created taxonomy?
What are reproductive barriers?
Restrictions that isolate gene pools of species and prevent interbreeding
What are two things that destroy cell walls?
Lysozyme- digest disaccharide of cell walls
Penicillin- inhibits synthesis linkages in cell walls
Species (male and female) show distinctively different appearances
Competition within same sex for mates, usually between males
Between two sexes is the mates choice, usually female
Comparison of body structure in different species
3 Points about Evolution in Natural Selection
1. Individuals do not evolve, populations do
2. Natural Selection amplifies or diminishes only inheritable traits
3. Evolution is not goal directed and does not lead to perfection. Favorable traits vary as environment changes
4 Mechanisms of Evolutionary Change
1. Gene Flow- gene migrations
2. Genetic Drift- chance
3. Natural Selection- best fit
4. Mutation- allele change
What are Archaebacteria
prokaryotes, unicellular, harsh environments