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Civics Final

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to select candidates to run for office
nominate
party leaders
party bosses
the election in the fall that determines who will hold the office until the next general election
general election
an election that is limited to registered members of political parties
closed primary
an election in which any registered voter may vote for any candidate
open primary
a paper that states that a person wishes to run for a particular office
petition
an election in which each candidate is awarded delegates in proportion to the number of votes cast
proportional representation primary
an election in which the candidate who gets the most votes gets all the delegates
winner-take-all primary
an election in which voters vote to show which candidate they prefer instead of voting for delegates
preference primary
caucus, convention, primary, petition
4 ways to nominate candidates
earliest method of nominating candidates; people in a party talk through which candidate to elect; party bosses made this undemocratic
caucus
public meeting of members of a party; party bosses made this undemocratic; replaced by a primary system
convention
each state has an election to determine who the most popular member of a party is
primary elections
the first tuesday after the first monday in november of every fourth year
When is the general presidential election day?
1964
When was the first time DC voted in a presidential election?
23rd amendment
Which amendment allows for DC to vote in pres. elections?
3
How many electors does DC have?
270
How many votes are needed to elect the P and VP?
the electors of the party that the candidate belongs to
For whom does the citizen actually vote during the presidential election in november?
a member of congress or a person who holds a federal office
Who may not be an elector?
The first Monday after the second Wednesday in December
When do the electors officially cast their vote for president and vice president?
The constitution requires electors to cast a ballot for at least one person who is not an inhabitant of that elector's home state
How does this system insure that the presidential and vice-presidential candidates are not from the same state?
early January in a joint session of congress
When are the electors' votes officially counted?
the House
Who selects the new president if there is no majority winner?
Thomas Jefferson and John Quincy Adams
Which presidents were elected by the House?
the Senate
Who selects the new VP if no VP candidate gets majority?
Every state has two senators and at least one representative in the House
Why would a state have at least three electoral votes?
how to make sure corporations and the wealthy can't buy a candidate
What is the problem with financing elections?
Set up a pool of money which gives the same amount of money to every candidate who participates; Matches funds up to $76 million
1971 Presidential Election Campaign Fund Act
candidates have to report donations and where the money is coming from
Federal Election Commission (FEC)
limits on amounts of campaign contributions ($2500); corporations and unions cannot give money to candidates
various campaign finance laws
organized by special interest groups; campaign for the candidate they want
Political Action Committees (PAC)
federal crime to deny any citizen the right to vote because of race, color, or previous enslavement
15th amendment
guaranteed women the right to vote
19th amendment
gave DC 3 electors for presidential elections
23rd amendment
bans poll tax
24th amendment
lowers voting age to 18
26th amendment
ends the literacy test requirement to register to vote
Voting Rights Act of 1965
enables citizens to register to vote when they register their cars
Federal Motor Voter Law
requires states to update their registration and voting systems
2002 Help America Vote Act
younger voters, new immigrants, African Americans, lower income, high school graduates, women, catholics/jews, northeast/midwest, urban
generalizations of democrat voters
Older, 2nd & 3rd gen. latinos, higher income, college educated, men, protestants, southerners/west, rural/suburbs/towns
generalizations of republican voters
most voters support the policies of one or the other of the major parties and tend to vote for that party's candidates
straight-ticket voting
college graduates, higher incomes, over 45, women, married, stable residence, active in church
generalizations of voter
male; under 35; low level of education; unskilled jobs
generalizations of nonvoter
never get around to registering; belief that little will change regardless of which party is in power; happy with current gov't; lack sense of political efficacy
reasons for not voting
the idea that a person can influence government by voting
political efficacy
ended the grandfather clause
Supreme Court Decision 1915 Guinn vs. US
gives Native Americans citizenship and the right to vote in federal elections
Indian Citizenship Act
collection of laws to end racial discrimination
Voting Rights Act '65, '70, '75, '82
the right to vote
suffrage
money given directly to the candidate in support of their campaign
hard money
money given to an organization which supports the candidate (such as a party or PAC)
soft money
August; Tampa, Florida
Republican convention 2012
September; Charlotte, North Carolina
Democrat convention 2012
December 17th
Electors cast votes 2012
Texas, California, New York, Florida
4 biggest states
religious affiliation and property ownership
Early US history voter qualifications:
more people registering, minorities registering
results of voting acts
November 13
General election 2012
a government in which the people rule
democracy
a government in which the people elect officials to represent them in government
representative democracy
free elections, political parties, constitutional government, independent judiciary, capitalist economy
characteristics of a democratic nation
constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary government
Great Britain (type of government)
nobility and bishops of the Church of England; limited power over lawmaking
House of Lords
elected by voters; each member represents one district
House of Commons
David Cameron (GB prime minister)
leader of the executive branch of government
prime minister (GB)
as long as he is popular and liked
How long can the prime minister stay in office?
a poll of the people to determine whether or not the prime minister should stay in office
vote of no confidence
the ruling party of Parliament
Who chooses the prime minister?
no judicial review (no constitution); do not make decisions based on law, but on educated judgement
British Courts
USSR; communist country; command economy and authoritarian government
What was Russia from 1917-1990?
Mikhail Gorbachev (Premier of the Soviet Union until 1991); knew the soviet union had to modernize to survive
means openness; opened up the government to the rest of the world; gave the soviets a little freedom so that they would be content; allowed elections
Glasnost
brought in western investment and technology; allowed private ownership
perestroika
Dmitry Medvedev (President of Russia)
Vladimir Putin (prime minister of Russia); wants to bring communism back; used to be head of the KGB; has the real power in Russia
massive, but not very effective
Russian legislature
judicial review; questionable fairness
Russian courts
Felipe Calderon (president of Mexico)
6
How many years in a term for the Mexican president?
2 chambers; 4 month sessions; ineffective
mexican legislative branch
do not have much influence; afraid to go against the criminals
Mexican courts
Stephen Harper; president of Canada
government based on faith; example is Iran
theocratic republic
Mao Zedong; took over China and made it a communist nation
Hu Jintao; current leader of China
poverty; allows some private ownership; encourages foreign investments; no personal rights; communist party has total control; congress and courts have no power
Post-Mao China
Military or military officers take over the civilian government; purpose is to end reforms by civilian governments and to make sure the wealthy and powerful do not lose position
junta
method used by juntas; suspended elections, fear (kidnappings, murder, torture)
martial law
they do not benefit ordinary citizens; dictatorships work for the group in power, not for majority of people
Why do communist nations collapse?
ethnic groups don't want to share power and they fight
Why is changing to a democracy difficult?
tribal and religious groups that fight each other for power
ethnic groups
Study of a nation's business systems and the way they are set up and organized
economics
caring for the physical needs of its people; manufacturing and distribution of goods and services; buying and selling; job opportunities and regulation; setting value of money; creating savings, deficits, and surpluses
a nation's economy is its method of:
the economy is run by the people and not the gov't; free enterprise; economy based upon competition among businesses and industry; gov't has a hands off attitude towards business (will not interfere unless absolutely necessary)
capitalism
gov't completely controls economy, owns almost everything; if workers do not produce as much as demanded, wages may be reduced but there is no compensation for successful production; not a lot of incentive to do well
command economies
as demand increases, price increases; as demand decreases, price decreases
Law of Demand
suppliers' viewpoint: as the prices increase, more items are left unsold; as the prices decrease, more items are sold
Law of Supply
the point where supply and demand are equal
equilibrium
increase in price resulting from increase in demand
inflation
a high demand for a product may lead to a shortage of the item
shortage
too much of a product; suppliers must lower the price in order to sell
surplus
means of exchange
money
easy to carry, take up little space; easy to do math with; must be durable; guaranteed by gov't and created in standardized form
currency
substitute for real money; written and signed order for a bank to pay a specified amount of money to the person named on the check
checkbook money/debit cards
non-sufficient funds; don't have enough money to pay check
NSF
another substitute for real money; customer pays with credit card, card pays merchant, bank bills credit card holder; bank charges customer a fee for the service and interest on balances; merchant charged for the convenience and merchant passes fee to customer
credit cards
required payment of money by citizens to help pay for government expenses
taxes
raise revenue and regulate citizens' activities
2 reasons for taxes
property, sales, corporate, inheritance, personal income, city, state, and federal taxes
types of taxes
government spends more money than it takes in taxes
government deficit
government spends less than takes in taxes
government surplus
government with an elected assembly that has both legislative and executive powers
parliamentary government
UN logo
UN building
United Nations; created in 1945; work towards world peace; 191 members; headquarters in NYC
UN
most important UN committee; 15 members; in charge of security of the world; use troops, sanctions, blockades
security council
US, GB, France, Russia, China
5 permanent members of security council:
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; original purpose was to contain communism in Europe; now track and stop terrorist organizations
NATO
market, traditional, command
3 types of economies
private ownership, individual initiative, competition, profit, freedom of choice
5 characteristics of capitalism
government is involved in setting economic and social policies; provides funding for some resources
mixed economy
an economic system in which the government owns the basic means of production and decides how resources should be used and is supposed to provide social services such as health care and welfare
socialism
that all members of society should share equally in the benefits of economic activity
purpose of socialism
nationalism (the nation takes over certain industries), public welfare (free education, housing, hospitals), central economic planning (gov't decides how resources should be used)
4 characteristics of socialism
Venezuelan dictator who kicked out the american companies, took over the oil wells, and takes the profits
Hugo Chavez
resources can be used to benefit the nation rather than foreign investors; central planning allows government to direct capital toward the growth of the industries and manufacturing
Governments of developing nations choose socialism because:
so much money is used to produce goods for export that agriculture is overlooked and food has to be imported; government becomes so large that it slows decision-making process and drains nation's resources; foreign companies are afraid to invest because they could be taken over
problems of socialism in developing nations
there are 2 classes, owners and workers; owners take opportunities from the workers and have all the riches; the only way to overthrow the system is to revolt
Karl Marx beliefs
stirred up the Russian peasants into revolting against the monarchy
Vladimir Lennon
everything run by communist party; centrally planned economy (government makes all economic decisions); collectivism; government ownership
Characteristics of Soviet communism
the integration of economic activities across national borders
globalization
when government blocks trade
trade barriers
taxes placed on imports to make them more costly than locally produced goods
tariffs
allows only a certain amount of a good to be brought into a country during a certain time period
quota
government payments to the producers of a good or service to encourage local production
subsidies
trade without barriers
free trade
population growth (drains agriculture); poor health (not enough doctors, poor sanitation); civil wars and military rule (keeps people on edge of starvation so they are unable to fight back); lack of capital and burden of debt (had to borrow money when they got started as an independent nation)
major problems faced by developing nations