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the election in the fall that determines who will hold the office until the next general election
an election in which each candidate is awarded delegates in proportion to the number of votes cast
proportional representation primary
an election in which the candidate who gets the most votes gets all the delegates
an election in which voters vote to show which candidate they prefer instead of voting for delegates
earliest method of nominating candidates; people in a party talk through which candidate to elect; party bosses made this undemocratic
public meeting of members of a party; party bosses made this undemocratic; replaced by a primary system
each state has an election to determine who the most popular member of a party is
the first tuesday after the first monday in november of every fourth year
When is the general presidential election day?
the electors of the party that the candidate belongs to
For whom does the citizen actually vote during the presidential election in november?
The first Monday after the second Wednesday in December
When do the electors officially cast their vote for president and vice president?
The constitution requires electors to cast a ballot for at least one person who is not an inhabitant of that elector's home state
How does this system insure that the presidential and vice-presidential candidates are not from the same state?
Every state has two senators and at least one representative in the House
Why would a state have at least three electoral votes?
how to make sure corporations and the wealthy can't buy a candidate
What is the problem with financing elections?
Set up a pool of money which gives the same amount of money to every candidate who participates; Matches funds up to $76 million
1971 Presidential Election Campaign Fund Act
candidates have to report donations and where the money is coming from
Federal Election Commission (FEC)
limits on amounts of campaign contributions ($2500); corporations and unions cannot give money to candidates
various campaign finance laws
organized by special interest groups; campaign for the candidate they want
Political Action Committees (PAC)
federal crime to deny any citizen the right to vote because of race, color, or previous enslavement
younger voters, new immigrants, African Americans, lower income, high school graduates, women, catholics/jews, northeast/midwest, urban
generalizations of democrat voters
Older, 2nd & 3rd gen. latinos, higher income, college educated, men, protestants, southerners/west, rural/suburbs/towns
generalizations of republican voters
most voters support the policies of one or the other of the major parties and tend to vote for that party's candidates
college graduates, higher incomes, over 45, women, married, stable residence, active in church
generalizations of voter
never get around to registering; belief that little will change regardless of which party is in power; happy with current gov't; lack sense of political efficacy
reasons for not voting
gives Native Americans citizenship and the right to vote in federal elections
Indian Citizenship Act
a government in which the people elect officials to represent them in government
free elections, political parties, constitutional government, independent judiciary, capitalist economy
characteristics of a democratic nation
a poll of the people to determine whether or not the prime minister should stay in office
vote of no confidence
no judicial review (no constitution); do not make decisions based on law, but on educated judgement
USSR; communist country; command economy and authoritarian government
What was Russia from 1917-1990?
Mikhail Gorbachev (Premier of the Soviet Union until 1991); knew the soviet union had to modernize to survive
means openness; opened up the government to the rest of the world; gave the soviets a little freedom so that they would be content; allowed elections
Vladimir Putin (prime minister of Russia); wants to bring communism back; used to be head of the KGB; has the real power in Russia
poverty; allows some private ownership; encourages foreign investments; no personal rights; communist party has total control; congress and courts have no power
Military or military officers take over the civilian government; purpose is to end reforms by civilian governments and to make sure the wealthy and powerful do not lose position
they do not benefit ordinary citizens; dictatorships work for the group in power, not for majority of people
Why do communist nations collapse?
caring for the physical needs of its people; manufacturing and distribution of goods and services; buying and selling; job opportunities and regulation; setting value of money; creating savings, deficits, and surpluses
a nation's economy is its method of:
the economy is run by the people and not the gov't; free enterprise; economy based upon competition among businesses and industry; gov't has a hands off attitude towards business (will not interfere unless absolutely necessary)
gov't completely controls economy, owns almost everything; if workers do not produce as much as demanded, wages may be reduced but there is no compensation for successful production; not a lot of incentive to do well
suppliers' viewpoint: as the prices increase, more items are left unsold; as the prices decrease, more items are sold
Law of Supply
easy to carry, take up little space; easy to do math with; must be durable; guaranteed by gov't and created in standardized form
substitute for real money; written and signed order for a bank to pay a specified amount of money to the person named on the check
checkbook money/debit cards
another substitute for real money; customer pays with credit card, card pays merchant, bank bills credit card holder; bank charges customer a fee for the service and interest on balances; merchant charged for the convenience and merchant passes fee to customer
property, sales, corporate, inheritance, personal income, city, state, and federal taxes
types of taxes
government with an elected assembly that has both legislative and executive powers
most important UN committee; 15 members; in charge of security of the world; use troops, sanctions, blockades
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; original purpose was to contain communism in Europe; now track and stop terrorist organizations
private ownership, individual initiative, competition, profit, freedom of choice
5 characteristics of capitalism
government is involved in setting economic and social policies; provides funding for some resources
an economic system in which the government owns the basic means of production and decides how resources should be used and is supposed to provide social services such as health care and welfare
that all members of society should share equally in the benefits of economic activity
purpose of socialism
nationalism (the nation takes over certain industries), public welfare (free education, housing, hospitals), central economic planning (gov't decides how resources should be used)
4 characteristics of socialism
Venezuelan dictator who kicked out the american companies, took over the oil wells, and takes the profits
resources can be used to benefit the nation rather than foreign investors; central planning allows government to direct capital toward the growth of the industries and manufacturing
Governments of developing nations choose socialism because:
so much money is used to produce goods for export that agriculture is overlooked and food has to be imported; government becomes so large that it slows decision-making process and drains nation's resources; foreign companies are afraid to invest because they could be taken over
problems of socialism in developing nations
there are 2 classes, owners and workers; owners take opportunities from the workers and have all the riches; the only way to overthrow the system is to revolt
Karl Marx beliefs
everything run by communist party; centrally planned economy (government makes all economic decisions); collectivism; government ownership
Characteristics of Soviet communism
allows only a certain amount of a good to be brought into a country during a certain time period
population growth (drains agriculture); poor health (not enough doctors, poor sanitation); civil wars and military rule (keeps people on edge of starvation so they are unable to fight back); lack of capital and burden of debt (had to borrow money when they got started as an independent nation)
major problems faced by developing nations
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