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John Locke

English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.

Louis XVI

- King of France (1774-1792). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Louis and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.

The Mountain

This was a political party within the National Convention named because the people that made up this party sat on the highest benches in the assembly hall. These people were the activists within the Convention. This group worried that the Girondists would become conservative because of their already moderate beliefs. Although they were in competition with each other, this group eventually won due to their alliance with the Sans-Culottes, resulting in a more radical group of people.

Thomas Hobbes

wrote "Leviathan" and believed people were naturally cruel, greedy, and selfish; he also believed only a powerful governemnt could keep an orderly society

Abbe Sieyes

Wrote an essay called "What is the 3rd estate" Argued that lower classes were more important than the nobles and the government should be responsible to the people.


A French political leader of the eighteenth century. A Jacobin, he was one of the most radical leaders of the French Revolution. He was in charge of the government during the Reign of Terror, when thousands of persons were executed without trial. After a public reaction against his extreme policies, he was executed without trial.

Napoleon Bonaparte

Overthrew French Directory in 1799 and became emperor of the French in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile.

Sans Culottes

People who want the revolution to bring great changes to France, in the French Revolution, a radical group made up of Parisian wage-earners, and small shopkeepers who wanted a greater voice in government, lower prices, and an end of food shortages


Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794.


Palace built by Louis the 14th which drained valuable money from the already weak french economy


The political prison and armory stormed on July 14, 1789, by Partisian city workers alarmed by the king's concentration of troops at Versailles


the capital and largest city of France


Where Louis XVI was caught while trying to flee France


a movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions


a former kingdom in north-central Europe including present-day northern Germany and northern Poland


French political philosopher who advocated the separation of executive and legislative and judicial powers (1689-1755)

Absolute Monarchy

a system of government in which the head of state is a hereditary position and the king or queen has almost complete power


educated, middle class of France; provided force behind the Revolution

Ancien Regime

name of the French absolute monarchy

Estates general

The French national assembly summoned in 1789 to remedy the financial crisis and make it seem as though the lower class had say in government. Partially the result of What is the Third Estate.

Tennis court oath

a pledge made by the members of France's National Assembly in 1789, in which they vowed to continue meeting until they had drawn up a new constitution

First Estate

The first class of French society made up of the clergy of the Roman Catholic Church.

Second Estate

The second class of French society made up of the noblility

National Assembly

French Revolutionary assembly (1789-1791). Called first as the Estates General, the three estates came together and demanded radical change. It passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789. (p. 585)

The Declaration of the Rights Of Man and Citizen

A document drafted in August 1789 by the National Constituent Assembly. This declaration uphled that all men were "born and remain free and equal in rights" of "liberty, property, security and resistance to oppression." It called for equality of law, education, employment, innocent until proven guilty, and freedom of religion.

Third Estate

98% of the population made up of Bourgeoisie, San Cullotes, and the Peasent Farmers

comittee of Public Safety

committee to "protect" citizens from counter-revolutionaries, truly was only protecting the revolution and wreaking havoc on the populace of France

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

A French man who believed that Human beings are naturally good & free & can rely on their instincts. Government should exist to protect common good, and be a democracy

Legislative Assembly

a French congress with the power to create laws and approve declarations of war, established by the constitution of 1791.

The Great fear

a vast panic that spread quickly through France in 1789; peasant rebellions became common; citizens, fearing invasion by foreign troops that would support the French monarchy, formed militias

Revolutionary Tribunal

A court instituted in Paris by the Convention between October 1793 and the Thermidorian Reaction, this court was one of the main instruments of the Reign of Terror and sent many people to the guillotine.

The Terror

the period, from mid-1793 to mid-1794, when Maximilien Robespierre France nearly as a dictator and thousands of political figures and ordinary citizens were executed

The Republic of Virtue

In this speech, Robespierre provided a comprehensive statement of his political theory while advocating the use of terror in defending democracy, which he equated with virtue.


instrument of execution that consists of a weighted blade between two vertical poles

Thermidorian reaction

11th month of french Revolutionary, eleventh month of the Revolutionary calendar (July and August), Marked the end of the Reign of Terror. named after a summer month of the French Republican calendar (from July 20 to August 18), which took place on 9 Thermidor An II (July 27, 1794), when Maximilien Robespierre and his Committee of Public Safety were forcibly removed from power.

Declaration of Pillnitz

afraid that other countries would follow France's lead and begin revolutions, Emperor Leopold II of Austria and King Frederick William II of Prussia issued this declaration in August 27, 1791, inviting other European monarchs to intervene on behalf of Louis XVI if his monarchy was threatened.

Levee en Masse

A national draft in France in 1794, created under the Jacobins, of a citizen army with support from young and old, heralding the emergence of modern warfare.


an economic system in which investment in and ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange of wealth is made and maintained chiefly by private individuals or corporations, esp. as contrasted to cooperatively or state-owned means of wealth.


commercial and industrial region of england during industrial recolution. 85% of world cotton went through here.

Agricultural Revolution

A time when new inventions such as the seed drill and the steel plow made farming easier and faster. The production of food rose dramatically.


French sociologist and reformer who hoped to achieve universal harmony by reorganizing society (1772-1837), French mathematician who developed Fourier analysis and studied the conduction of heat (1768-1830)

Enclosure Movement

The process of consolidating small landholdings into a smaller number of larger farms in England during the eighteenth century.

Poor Laws

17th century laws in England that bound out vagrants and abandoned children as indentured servants to masters, Social security system from in England from 16th to 20th century----Elizabethan Poor Law of 1601 - created a collectivist national system, offered relief to unemployed, provided materials for those seeking work, boarded out to orphaned and abandoned young children


This was the political idea in which the people regarded tradition as the basic source of human institutions and the proper state and society remained those before the French Revolution which rested on a judicious blend on monarchy, bureaucracy, aristocracy, and respectful commoners


a political or social philosophy advocating the freedom of the individual, parliamentary systems of government, nonviolent modification of political, social, or economic institutions to assure unrestricted development in all spheres of human endeavor, and governmental guarantees of individual rights and civil liberties.


the development of industry on an extensive scale

Robert Owen

(1771-1858) British cotton manufacturer believed that humans would reveal their true natural goodness if they lived in a cooperative environment. Tested his theories at New Lanark, Scotland and New Harmony, Indiana, but failed

New Lanark

a model textile factory cooperative community founded by Robert Owen

Claude Henri de Saint-Simon

who is called the founder of French socialism, argued that a brotherhood of man must accompany the scientific organization of industry and society. He proposed that production and distribution be carried out by the state, and that allowing everyone to have equal opportunity to develop their talents would lead to social harmony, and the traditional state could be virtually eliminated, or transformed. "Rule over men would be replaced by the administration of things


Type of building for utopian community built by fourier

Steam Engine

external-combustion engine in which heat is used to raise steam which either turns a turbine or forces a piston to move up and down in a cylinder

Steam Loom

Weaves thread into cloth faster. Needs water source, along with woman workers.

cotton gin

takes seeds from cotton speeds up the cotton production process

spinning jenny

makes yarn/string more efficiently

child labor

kids were used as hard labor because they were extremely cheap

michael sadler

a nice factory owner who had factories with good conditions and stated the sadler commision to give child labourers more rights.

sadler commision

a write up of the testimonies of the child labourers and this lead to the laws being changed.

adam smith

Scottish political economist and philosopher. His Wealth of Nations (1776) laid the foundations of classical free-market economic theory, government should not interfere with economics. Advocates Laissez Faire and founder of "invisible hand"

david ricardo

English economist who argued that the laws of supply and demand should operate in a free market (1772-1823), Principles of Political Economy (1817); "iron law of wages": rise of population means rise of amount of workers, which cause wages to fall below the subsistence level, resulting in misery and starvation

Thomas Malthus

English economist and cleric was the most famous pioneer observer of population growth with the publishing in 1798 of An Essay on the Principle of Population, known as the "dismal essay." He believed that the human ability to multiply far exceeds our ability to increase food production. He maintained that "a strong and constantly operating check on population" will necessarily act as a natural control on numbers. He regarded famine, disease, and war as the inevitable outcome of the human population's outstripping the food supply.

Invisible Hand

term economists use to describe the self-regulating nature of the marketplace

Andrew Ure

Andrew Ure believed that conditions were improving for the working people. Ure wrote in 1835 in his study of the cotton industry that conditions in most factories were not harsh and were even quite good. (743)


they were designed to be unpleasant, husbands and wives were separated, food was bad, work distasteful to make poverty the most desirable of all social conditions


Any of a group of British workers who between 1811 and 1816 rioted and destroyed laborsaving textile machinery in the belief that such machinery would diminish employment.


The key Chartist demand-that all men be given the right to vote-became the great hope of millions of aroused people. They also wanted to limit the workday in factories to ten hours and to permit duty-free importation of wheat into Great Britain to secure cheap bread. They saw complete political democracy and rule by the common people as the means to a good and just society. (p.776)

Chadwick's Report

1840's reported on unsanitary conditions in London created by intramural burials, the high cost of funerals and the 1st use of the death certificate.


Networks of iron (later steel) rails on which steam (later electric or diesel) locomotives pulled long trains at high speeds. First railroads were built in England in the 1830s. Success caused a railroad building boom lasting into the 20th Century (704)

Friedrich Engels

wrote industrial Manchester and co wrote thencommunist manifesto

Alliance System

political, economic or military alignment of nations; promotes the common interests of members


a political orientation of a people or a government to maintain a strong military force and to be prepared to use it aggresively to defend or promote national interests


the policy of extending the rule or authority of an empire or nation over foreign countries, or of acquiring and holding colonies and dependencies.

The Balkans

Present day territory that includes Greece, Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, Turkey, and the former Yugoslavia. Revolutions sparked by nationalism began here: Greece (1821), WWI (1914)

The Triple Alliance

This alliance consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy. Italy later left, and was replaced with The Ottoman Empire (Turkey) and Bulgaria. Also known as the Central Powers.

the triple entente

the allied countries of Russia, Britain, and France

Arch Duke Franz Ferdinand

Arch-Duke of Austria; assassined on June 28, 1914 in Sarajevo serbia


German submarines used in World War I

Trench Warfare

Fighting with trenches, mines, and barbed wire. Horrible living conditions, great slaughter, no gains, stalemate, used in WWI.

Chemical weapons

weapons with chemical agents designed to attack bodies nervous system, blood, skin, or lungs. EX. WWI Mustard Gas


a state of peace agreed to between opponents so they can discuss peace terms

treaty of versaille

4 major provisions: 1. Territorial losses- Alsace and Lorraine had to now be returned by the Germans. 2. Military restrictions-Germany had to reduce its army to 100,000 men, cut back its navy, and eliminate its air force. 3. War guilt- declared that Germany (and Austria) was responsible for starting the war. The treaty ordered Germany to pay reparations for all the damage to govts. and the people. 4. League of Nations

Alexander II

the son of Nicholas I who, as czar of Russia, introduced reforms that included limited emancipation of the serfs (1818-1881)


traditional beliefs, especially in religion


a political theory favoring unlimited authority by a single individual

Bloody Sunday

1905, peaceful protest to czar Nicholas II palace, led by Father Gapon, fired on by palace guards, 100s died


means "majority," Russian radical communist party. Eventually taken over by Lenin.

Russian Civil War

1918-1920: conflict in which the Red Army successfully defended the newly formed Bolshevik government against various Russian and interventionist anti-Bolshevik armies. Red vs. White Army.

Communist Manifesto

a socialist manifesto written by Marx and Engels (1842) describing the history of the working-class movement according to their views

February Revolution

riot against government because of failure to win the war- troops joined peasants in fighting- provisional government took control

five year plan

Stalin's economic policy to rebuild the Soviet economy after WWI. tried to improve heavy industry and improve farm output, but resulted in famine

Joseph Stalin

Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)

Karl Marx

German philosopher, economist, and revolutionary. With the help and support of Friedrich Engels he wrote The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (1867-1894). These works explain historical development in terms of the interaction of contradictory economic forces, form the basis of all communist theory, and have had a profound influence on the social sciences.


the political and economic theories of Lenin which provided the guiding doctrine of the Soviet Union

Leon Trotsky

Russian revolutionary led the Menshevik party. A leader of the communist Revolution (1917), he was later expelled from the Communist Party (1927) and banished (1929) for his opposition to the authoritarianism of Stalin


was a communist faction of the Russian revolutionary movement that emerged in 1903. They wanted to move step by step towards a communist government (wanted const. monarchy first).

Nicholas II

Last tsar of Russia, he went to the frontlines in WWI to try to rally the troops, but was forced to abdicate after his wife made horrible decisions under the influence of Rasputin.

October Manifesto

Issued in Russia because of fear of a general strike. Granted full civil rights and a popular parliament- Duma.

October Revolution

The seizure of power by force by the Bolsheviks from the Provisional Government (that had replaced Tsar Nicholas II after the February Revolution) in November of 1917. After the forceful seizure of power, Lenin set himself up as the first head of a Marxist state with aspirations to change the country, making several decrees in his effort use socialist ideas (Confiscation of large estates and businesses & establishment of political monopoly- no rival political parties).


a social class comprising those who do manual labor or work for wages


the middle class, including merchants, industrialists, and professional people

Provisional Government

The government established in 1917 which replaced Nicholas II when he abdicated. The only mistake of this government was not getting Russia out of the brutal World War I.

Romanov Dynasty

dynasty that favored the nobles, reduced military obligations, expanded the Russian empire further east, and fought several unsuccessful wars, yet they lasted from 1613 to 1917.


The system of agricultural labor popular in eastern Europe in which peasants had no rights or freedoms and were bound to the land.

Social Democrats

Socialists emphasizing popular consent, peaceful change, political pluralism and constitutional government.

1905 Revolution

The revolution that began January 1905 with Bloody Sunday and ended with Nicholas II creating the October Manifesto.


-Third international of the European socialist movement
-worked towards Lenin Bolshevik socialism becoming rule for all socialist parties outside Soviet Union
-enforced Twenty-One conditions on socialist parties wishing to join it
-sought to destroy all democratic socialism
-caused split in major European socialist parties

the great purge

Josef Stalin's rein of terror on the Soviet Union, Time period when all opposition to the communist government under Stalin were sent to labor camps.

New economic policy

Policy proclaimed by Vladimir Lenin in 1924 to encourage the revival of the Soviet economy by allowing small private enterprises. Joseph Stalin ended this policy in 1928 and replaced it with a series of Five-Year Plans.


a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, at Brest-Litovsk (now Brest, Belarus) between the Russian SFSR and the Central Powers, marking Russia's exit from World War I.

Vladimir Lenin

Founder of the Russian Communist Party, this man led the November Revolution in 1917 which established a revolutionary soviet government based on a union of workers, peasants, and soldiers.

War Communism

A system introduced under Bolshevik rule after 1917 which involved land being seized and redistributed, factories given to the workers, banks being nationalized, and church property being granted to the state. This was enforced by the Cheka.

July Days

when the Bolsheviks rose in insurrection but ended up failing. This hardened political lines in Russia. Bolsheviks were arrested.

(QI) The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen

civil liberties, equality before the law, no man above the law, basic human rights, constitution like

(QI) Abbe Sieyes

What is the Third Estate?; complains about the living conditions, demands fair representation in government, they want their voices to be heard.

(QI) Robespierre

Justification of the Use of Terror; radical, kill Louis 16, anti counter-rev., violence is only justice, anything about liberty and virtue.

(QI) Danton

price of bread; economic struggles, for the people, criticized Robespierre

(QI) Napoleonic Code

military stuff, conquest, const. like, education, reorganization

(QI) Ca Ira

song about the french revolution

(QI) David Ricardo

Iron Law of Wages; free market, wage depends on price of subsistence, capitalism = good

(QI) Adam Smith

Wealth of Nations; invisible hand of competition/laissez-faire, capitalism = good, supports private ownership of means of production, division of labor (assembly lines)

(QI) Andrew Ure

the Philosophy of Manufacturers; machines replace people (for the hard/dangerous work), how to increase efficiency, basic health and insurance benefits for workers, specialized/skilled jobs

(QI) Michael Sadler

against child labor, visited factories, activist, Sadler commission

(QI) Edwin Chadwick

Chadwick's Report on Sanitary Conditions; actual issues on the street rather than inside the factories, improve working conditions, poor laws

(QI) Thomas Malthus

anything about population growth or decline (most likely on the final), babies, famine

(QI) Leon Trotsky

In Defense of the Russian Revolution; why revolution/communism is needed to move forward, political working class party (working class representation in government)

(QI) Vladimir Lenin

95 Theses; pro-marxism, democratic organization of political parties, soviets (working class unions) in power, socialism, anti counter rev.

(QI) Stalin

5 year plans, agricultural and industrial reforms, kulaks could be a hint, anti counter rev.

(QI) Marx and Engels

communism, marxism, socialism, critique of modern society, why communism is good, eventually the most advanced societies will reach a utopia (communism), anti bourgeois (their definition: (in Marxist contexts) upholding the interests of capitalism; not communist)

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