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40 terms

astronomy

chapter 2
STUDY
PLAY
which of these was not a part of the original copernican model
mercury speeds up at perihelion, and slows down at aphelion
which of the statements below is part of both ptolemaic and copernican models
the moon orbits the earth once a month
which of these was not seen telescopically by galileo
stellar parallax
which of the follwoing was not a contribution of galileo to astronomy
the changing appearance of saturn's rings corresponds to our seasons
which of the following is a contribution to astronomy made by galileo
1)venus appears fully lit when it lies on the far side of the sun
2) jupiter has 4 moons orbiting it
3)the moon has craters and valleys
4)the astronomical telescope can show us far more detail than the eye can
which of these observations of galieleo refuted ptolemy's epicycles
the comple cycle of venus' phases
which of these was not a telescopic discovery of galileo
the moons of saturn
a fatal flaw with ptolemys model is the inability to predict the observed phases of
mercury and venus
it took two centuries for the copernican model to replaced the ptolemaic model because
there was no scientific evidence to support either model until galileo made his observations
galileo found the rotation period of the sun was approximately
a week
keplers first law worked, where copernicus original heliocentric model failed, because kepler described the orbits as
elliptical not circular
tycho brahe contribution to keplers laws of planetary motion were
his detailed and accurate observations of the planets position
the most famous prehistoric astronomical observatory is
stonehenge
a circular orbit would have an eccentricity of
0
upon which point do copernicus an dkepler disagree
the orbits of the planets are ellipses with one focus at the sun
what contribution to astronomy ws made by tycho brahe
his observations of planetary motion with great accuracy proved circular orbits could nto work
which was not a part of keplers laws of planetary motion
epicycles are needed to explain the varying brightness of the planets
according to keplers third law, the square of the planets period in years is
proportional to its cube of its semimajor axis in A.U
what does kepler third law imply about planetary motion
planets further from the sun orbit at a slower speed than planets closer to the sun
a planet whose distance from the sun is 3 A.U WOULD HAVE AN ORBITAL PERIOD OF HOW MANY EARTHS?
magnitude of 3^3= sqrt(27)
the place in a planets orbit that is closes to the sun is called
perihelion
during the 18th and 19th centuries, attempts to precisely measure the astronomical unit largely on rare
transits of the inferior planets across the sun
today we rely on what technique to precisely measue distances in the solar system
radar echo timing
the force of gravity varies with the
1)inverse square of the distance separating two bodies
2)product of two masses
the law of universal gravitation was developed by
newton
the force of gravity between two objects
increase with the mases of the bodies but decreases with their separations
according to newtons law of universal gravitation, if the moon were three times further from earth, the force by earth on the moon
would decrease by a facotr of 9
how much stronger is the gravitational pull of the sun on earth at 1 AU, than in saturn at 10 AU
100x
which of these was a contribution of newton to astornomy
1)artifical satellites can be orbited
2)calculus explains planetary motion
3)suns gravit is greatest on a planet at perihelion
,so the planet must speed up
4)moon pull as strongly as we do on it
geosynchronous satellites orbit at about four earth radii, where the earths gravitational pull is
1/16 g
jupiter lies about 5 AU from the sun, so its distance
the suns gravity is 25 times weaker than its pull on earth
how does newton universal law of gravitation explains keplers laws
1)universal gravitation implies planets further from the sun will move more slowly than the planets cloer to the sun.. same for the converse of this sentence
given that the planet orbiting the nearby star 51 PEGASI is about 20x larger than the earth but 400X mor emassive, on that world you would weight
the sane as you do here
if the distance between two asteroids is doubled, the gravitational force exerted on each other will be
one fourth as great
compared to the orbital velocity, escape velocity is about
40% more
orbital speed is the speed with which a planet moves around the sun this speed is determined by
the mass of both th eplanet and the sun and the distance between the two
escape velocity is the speed required to
overcome the gravitational pull of an object
according to copernicus, retrograde motion for venus must occur around
inferior conjunction,when it passes between us and the sun
combining newtons and keplers laws, we can weigh the sun provided we know
1)size in AU,
2)and exact length of the yr
keplers second law implies what about planetary motion
a planet moves faster when it is closer to the sun