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chapter 2

which of these was not a part of the original copernican model

mercury speeds up at perihelion, and slows down at aphelion

which of the statements below is part of both ptolemaic and copernican models

the moon orbits the earth once a month

which of these was not seen telescopically by galileo

stellar parallax

which of the follwoing was not a contribution of galileo to astronomy

the changing appearance of saturn's rings corresponds to our seasons

which of the following is a contribution to astronomy made by galileo

1)venus appears fully lit when it lies on the far side of the sun
2) jupiter has 4 moons orbiting it
3)the moon has craters and valleys
4)the astronomical telescope can show us far more detail than the eye can

which of these observations of galieleo refuted ptolemy's epicycles

the comple cycle of venus' phases

which of these was not a telescopic discovery of galileo

the moons of saturn

a fatal flaw with ptolemys model is the inability to predict the observed phases of

mercury and venus

it took two centuries for the copernican model to replaced the ptolemaic model because

there was no scientific evidence to support either model until galileo made his observations

galileo found the rotation period of the sun was approximately

a week

keplers first law worked, where copernicus original heliocentric model failed, because kepler described the orbits as

elliptical not circular

tycho brahe contribution to keplers laws of planetary motion were

his detailed and accurate observations of the planets position

the most famous prehistoric astronomical observatory is


a circular orbit would have an eccentricity of


upon which point do copernicus an dkepler disagree

the orbits of the planets are ellipses with one focus at the sun

what contribution to astronomy ws made by tycho brahe

his observations of planetary motion with great accuracy proved circular orbits could nto work

which was not a part of keplers laws of planetary motion

epicycles are needed to explain the varying brightness of the planets

according to keplers third law, the square of the planets period in years is

proportional to its cube of its semimajor axis in A.U

what does kepler third law imply about planetary motion

planets further from the sun orbit at a slower speed than planets closer to the sun

a planet whose distance from the sun is 3 A.U WOULD HAVE AN ORBITAL PERIOD OF HOW MANY EARTHS?

magnitude of 3^3= sqrt(27)

the place in a planets orbit that is closes to the sun is called


during the 18th and 19th centuries, attempts to precisely measure the astronomical unit largely on rare

transits of the inferior planets across the sun

today we rely on what technique to precisely measue distances in the solar system

radar echo timing

the force of gravity varies with the

1)inverse square of the distance separating two bodies
2)product of two masses

the law of universal gravitation was developed by


the force of gravity between two objects

increase with the mases of the bodies but decreases with their separations

according to newtons law of universal gravitation, if the moon were three times further from earth, the force by earth on the moon

would decrease by a facotr of 9

how much stronger is the gravitational pull of the sun on earth at 1 AU, than in saturn at 10 AU


which of these was a contribution of newton to astornomy

1)artifical satellites can be orbited
2)calculus explains planetary motion
3)suns gravit is greatest on a planet at perihelion
,so the planet must speed up
4)moon pull as strongly as we do on it

geosynchronous satellites orbit at about four earth radii, where the earths gravitational pull is

1/16 g

jupiter lies about 5 AU from the sun, so its distance

the suns gravity is 25 times weaker than its pull on earth

how does newton universal law of gravitation explains keplers laws

1)universal gravitation implies planets further from the sun will move more slowly than the planets cloer to the sun.. same for the converse of this sentence

given that the planet orbiting the nearby star 51 PEGASI is about 20x larger than the earth but 400X mor emassive, on that world you would weight

the sane as you do here

if the distance between two asteroids is doubled, the gravitational force exerted on each other will be

one fourth as great

compared to the orbital velocity, escape velocity is about

40% more

orbital speed is the speed with which a planet moves around the sun this speed is determined by

the mass of both th eplanet and the sun and the distance between the two

escape velocity is the speed required to

overcome the gravitational pull of an object

according to copernicus, retrograde motion for venus must occur around

inferior conjunction,when it passes between us and the sun

combining newtons and keplers laws, we can weigh the sun provided we know

1)size in AU,
2)and exact length of the yr

keplers second law implies what about planetary motion

a planet moves faster when it is closer to the sun

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