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130 terms

OCE1001 Chapters 1-4 Test Review

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hydrothermal vents are?
divergent plate boundary
island arc's are?
convergent plate boundary
mountains are?
convergent plate boundary
oceanic trenches are?
convergent plate boundary
rift valley's are?
divergent plate boundary
volcanoes are?
divergent plate boundary
the measurements of ocean depth and sea floor topography is?
bathometry
A device used for side-scan sonar is?
GLORIA
a cumulative plot of area versus depth or elevation is?
hypsometric curve
uses high frequency sound waves to measure ocean depth?
PDR
used to determine shape and position of boundaries
seismic survey
abyssal clay is what type of phrase?
terrigenous sediment
coccolithophores is what type of phrase?
biogenous sediment
diatomacceous ooze is what type of phrase?
biogenous sediment
halite is what type of phrase?
hydrogenous sediment
manganese nodules is what type of phrase?
hydrogenous sediment
metal sulfides is what type of phrase?
hydrogenous sediment
oolites is what type of phrase?
hydrogenous sediment
silaceous ooze is what type of phrase?
biogenous sediment
stromatolites is what type of phrase?
biogenous sediment
tektites is what type of phrase?
cosmogenous sediment
Ancient precursor of the Pacific Ocean is?
Panthalassa
super continent 200 million years ago is?
Pangea
depression along the ridge axis is?
rift valley
the study of changes in the character of oceans due to geographic changes is?
paleogeology
the study of magnetism over geologic time is?
paleomagnetism
depth at which all carbonated is in solution is?
CCD
associated with glacial deposits is?
ice rafting
depth a which carbonate begins to dissolve is?
lysocline
associated with deep sea fans is?
turbidite
particle size classification is?
Wentworth Scale
The relatively young age of the seafloor supports the idea that subduction must take place?
True
The magnetic north pole has remained very close to the geographic north pole through all of geologic time?
False
Paleomagnetism confirms that at particular times in the geologic past Earth has had more than one magnetic north pole?
False
New crust is formed at trenches and old crust is subducted at ridges?
False
The oldest rocks are located at mid ocean ridges?
False
Earthquakes are common along fracture zones?
False
Deep focus earthquakes are often associated with deep-sea trenches?
True
The magnetic field of the Earth reverses itself each time that magma erupts at a mid-ocean ridge?
False
Fast-moving spreading ridges tend to be more gently sloped than slow moving ridges?
True
Deep-sea trenches are found at convergent plate boundaries?
True
At divergent plate boundaries only shallow focus earthquakes can be found?
True
Abyssal plains are more extensive on the floor of the Atlantic as compared those on the floor of the Pacific?
True
Sediments of the continental rise can exhibit characteristics similar to those formed by rivers on land?
True
A sediment-laden current that flows off the continental shelf is called a turbidity current?
True
The deepest portions of the ocean are part of the relatively narrow features called submarine canyons?
False
Subduction zones appear to remain nearly stationary over long periods of time?
True
Trenches change their position over time?
True
Seamounts form from ancient tablemounts?
False
Mid-ocean ridges are rises occupy a small portion of the deep ocean basin, only around 10%?
False
Hydrothermal vents have a significant impact on ocean chemistry?
True
Due to the very harsh environment, few organisms are found in association with hydrothermal vents?
False
Texture refers to the size and shape of sediments particles?
True
Sediments derived from weathered rock and volcanic activity are called biogenous sediments?
False
Beach sand is usually well-sorted?
True
A glacial deposit is well-sorted?
False
A well-sorted sand deposit with rounded particles might be called immature?
False
The Wentworth scale is used to arrange the amount of sorting in a sediment deposit?
False
Calcareous shells will not accumulate on the ocean floor when the water depth exceeds about 4500 meters ( around 15,000 feet.) ?
True
The deposition of radiolarian oozes is affected by the carbonate compensation depth?
False
Radiolarian oozes form near the equator?
True
Phosphate nodules are found on the continental shelf?
True
Organisms that live on the ocean floor may be responsible for keeping manganese nodules from being buried in the sediment?
True
Fossils found in sediments can be used to?
Indicate the relative age of sediments, provide evidence for plate movement, suggest ancient climate characteristics, and support the idea that land masses were joined.
All continents fit together with the least number of overlaps and gaps when the continents are matched along?
contours at around 2000 meters in depth.
Fossils of ancient polar plants are currently found near the equator because the?
plants lived near the poles, but land masses have drifted to current locations.
Climate distribution on Earth is primarily controlled by?
Latitude
What does not provided evidence for continental drift?
seafloor magnetic patterns
Continental drift was confirmed through the use of the?
location of magnetic poles through geologic time.
Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between earth's geographic and magnetic poles?
the geographic pole wobbles, but stays near the magnetic pole.
Vine and Matthews determined that new ocean floor was being produced at ocean ridges by examining?
the magnetic pattern on the seafloor
Confirmation of seafloor spreading was supported by the?
age of seafloor.
The seafloor magnetic pattern is be best described as?
parallel to and symmetric about ocean ridges.
Oceans become deeper moving away from ridges due to?
thermal contraction of hot lithosphere.
Differences in height between continental crust and oceanic crust are explained by?
isostasy
Which of the following statements is true of the asthenosphere?
The asthenosphere is composed of outer mantle material
Which of the following statements is true of the lithosphere?
The lithosphere is composed of the crust and the topmost portion of the outer mantle
Moving from oceanic ridge to oceanic trench, the thickness of the lithosphere?
increases in proportion to the distance
Deep ocean trenches are associated with?
subduction zones.
The Hawaiian Islands are located where the Pacific plate is?
moving over a hot spot.
The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is an example of a?
divergent boundary
Which of the following is associated with divergent plate boundaries on the seafloor?
offset of the mid-ocean ridges
Which of the following is characteristic of oceanic-oceanic convergent plate boundaries?
volcanic island arcs
Which of the following is characteristic of oceanic-continental convergent plate boundaries?
andesitic volcanoes
The two relatively flat areas on the hypsometric curve represent?
some interior continental areas/ coastal plains and abyssal plains
The method that is most frequently used to investigate sediment and rock layers of the sea floor is?
Sound Waves
Satellites are used to map the ocean floor because they?
are unaffected by surface weather,can cover areas where ships have not produced surveys, can "see" large areas of the seafloor at one time, and the shape of the ocean surface itself reflects large features on the seafloor below
Passive continental margins are characterized by all of the following?
deep-sea trenches
Characteristics of active continental margins include all of the following?
broad continental shelf.
The correct order of marine provinces from the coast to the mid-ocean ridge is?
shelf, slope, rise, abyssal plain.
Directly seaward of the continental shelf is a more steeply sloping region called the?
Continental Slope
what is not considered part of the continental margin?
fracture zones.
Continental rises are formed?
by many deep sea fans
Submarine canyons were most likely formed by?
erosion by turbidity currents
The most rapid change in slope in the ocean is found at the?
oceanic trench
The most gradual change in slope in the ocean can be found at the?
abyssal plain.
Old lithosphere is destroyed in association with?
deep-sea trenches
Abyssal hills are only visible in the Pacific Ocean because?
they are higher in the Pacific than in the other ocean basins
New lithosphere is produced in association with?
mid-ocean ridges
The hottest hydrothermal vents are called?
black smokers
Warm-water hydrothermal vents form?
white smokers
The direction of motion along a seafloor transform fault is?
in the same direction as the plates are spreading.
With respect to mid-ocean ridges, transform faults are?
perpendicular to the ridge axis
The major force bringing continental sediments to the open ocean is (are)?
Wind
What are the important factors in control on oceanic sediment accumulation?
degree of preservation, dilution, input from other sediment types, and rate of deposition
High energy environments are most likely to contain which one of the following?
large particles such as gravel
Sediments that are poorly sorted and made of a variety of minerals could have been deposited by?
a glacier.
Which of the following contains calcium carbonate (CaCO3)?
foraminiferans
Which of the following contains silica (SiO2)?
radiolarians
Sediments derived from preexisting rocks are called?
lithogenous
Sediments produced by organisms in the sea called?
biogenous
Sediments produced as a result of chemical reactions in seawater are called?
hydrogenous
Sediments with an extraterrestrial origin are called?
cosmogenous.
What is not a lithogenous sediment?
diatom ooze
Manganese nodules are an example of a?
hydrogenous sediment
What is not a hydrogenous sediment?
stromatolites
The element found in some sediments that suggests that a meteorite or asteroid impact occurred nearby is?
iridium.
The most likely place to find abundant manganese nodules is on the?
abyssal plain far from a continent.
In contrast to manganese nodules, which form on the abyssal plain, phosphate-rich nodules form in?
intermediate to shallow depth water.
Sediments found on continental margins are called?
neritic
In general, polar neritic sediment has more?
rock and gravel than in tropical waters.
A pelagic clay contains material that settles to the seafloor through the water column and is?
less than 30% biogenous material
An important way to increase the settling rate of fine biogenous particles in the open ocean is via?
fecal pellets
Oceanic crust is primarily?
basalt
outermost portion of the Earth, basalt and granite?
crust
rich in ferromagnesian minerals, between crust and core?
mantle
The four principle oceans of the Earth are the?
Atlantic, Arctic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans.
All the following are TRUE concerning the deepest part of the ocean except:?
The depth of the trench is estimated at 12,500 m
The separation of the Earth into layers was the result of the?
differing densities of the rock and mineral materials.
mapped world with Roman knowledge showing latitude and longitude?
Ptolemy