Extended Themes Of Political Analysis
Terms in this set (70)
Provide the three main beliefs of Ecologism
1 - Opposition to Anthropocentrism
2 - Belief in Ecology / ecosystems
3 - Ecocentrism
What is the Ecologist belief in the "Opposition to Anthropocentrism?"
-Examination of the interrelationships that bind humans to all living organisms and the web of life.
-Instead of preserving and respecting the earth and the diverse species on it, humans have tried to become in the words of John Locke 'the masters and possessors of nature'
-Anthropocentrism therefore has been identified as the root cause of the ecological crisis
What is the Ecologist belief in ecology/ecosystems?
-Homeostasis refers to the fact that all ecosystems tend toward a state of hamony or equilibrium through a system of self regulation.
-Natural world is made up of a complex web of ecosystems, the largest of which is the global ecosystem. Individual ecosystems are not closed or entirely self sustaining, each interacts with other ecosystems.
What is Ecocentrism?
-Humankind no longer occupies centre stage but is regarded as an inseparable part of nature.
-Ecologism represents a new style of politics, whose central vision is of nature as an interconnected whole, a network of precious but fragile relationships between living species, including humans and the natural environment.
What is the Shallow & Deep Ecological view on Ecocentrism?
SE-Weak Ecocentrism / Enlightened Anthropocentrism (nature needs to be conserved and protected for human benefit.)
DE-Strong Ecocentrism (Rejects the fact that humans are in any way superior to other species, priority is to maintain ecological balance)
What is the Shallow & Deep Ecological view on Sustainability?
SE - Sustainable development (Maintaining economic and technological growth but at a slower pace and in a more sustainable way.)
DE - Strong sustainability (Antigrowth as far as human society is concerned)
What is the Shallow & Deep Ecological view on Natural Growth
SE - Conservation (All of nature may not be equal but it needs to be protected and conserved.)
DE - Biocentric Equality (The belief that all nature has an equal right to flourish and prosper.)
What is the Shallow & Deep Ecological view on Nature's Value?
SE - Nature has instrumental (use) value (nature has value because it is of use to humans and it therefore needs to be sustained for human benefit.)
DE - Nature has intrinsic value (assumption that nature is important to preserve as it has value in itself regardless of the interests and concerns of humans)
What is the Shallow & Deep Ecological view on Holism?
SE - Weak Holism (acceptance that there are consequences of linked behaviour and impacts on parts of the earth and ecosystems)
DE - Radical Holism (belief that there is a more important 'bigger picture' and that ecological issues can only be resolved by addressing all relationships.)
What is the Shallow & Deep Ecological view on Personal Development?
SE - (accepts the importance of ecological awareness but only in the context of more general personal development.)
DE - (focuses on the need to improve human consciousness of ecological issues as a major priority)
Give the definition for 'holism' and an example
Holism - The world can only be understood as a whole and not through examination of its individual part (Science commits the sin of reductionism - tries to understand every single part)
I.E LOVELOCK's "Gaia Theory" - the health of the planet matters more than that of any individual species presently living in it & we must act to conserve its health, beauty and resources.
What is a mechanistic world view ?
-Development of the scientific method enabled remarkable advances to be made in human knowledge providing the basis for the development of modern industry and technology
-Scientific method was the only value-free and objective means for establishing truth.
Why do ecologists reject a mechanistic world view?
-Times have changed since the beginnings of scientism which has left it outdated
-CAPRA states that the Cartesian Newtonian Paradigm is the philosophical basis of the modern environmental crisis, and needs to be overthrown and replaced with a new paradigm.
Give the first alternative to scientism
-Although many ecologists criticise science, some suggest modern science offers a new paradigm for human thought.
-Cartesian-Newtonian Paradigm based on mechanistic and reductionist view of the world has been superseded.
Give an example of "The New Physics"
CAPRA - developed a 'systems view of life' which focuses on principles of organisation within ecosystems and the way its functioning is influenced by human interventions
Give the second alternative to scientism
Eastern Religion - Eastern mysticism provides a philosophy of ecological wisdom and advocates a sustainable way of life that encourages compassion for fellow human beings
Give an example of "Eastern Religion"
Buddhism, particularly zen buddhism have long preached the unity or oneness of all things
Give the third alternative to 'Scientism'
Primitive mysticism - Modern Greens have looked back to pre-Christian spiritual and mystical ideas. Primitive religions often drew no distinction between human and other forms of life, and little distinction between living and non-living objects.
-All things are viewed as alive
Give an example of "Primitive Mysticism"
New Age - 'Council of All Beings' - 'Humankind has not woven the web of life we are but one thread within it. Whatever we do to to the web we do to ourselves'.
Summarise "The New Physics"
Suggest modern science offers a new paradigm for modern thought. This was seen from Einstein, and Heisenburg's 'Uncertainty principle'.
CAPRA - 'A systems view of life'
Summarise "Eastern Religion"
Provides a philosophy of ecological wisdom and advocates a sustainable way of life that encourages compassion for human beings.
Buddhism - Preached the unity or oneness of all things
Summarise "Primitive Mysticism"
Primitive religions drew no distinction between human and other forms of life.
New Age - 'Council of All Beings' - 'Humankind has not woven the web of life, we are but one thread within it.
Outline why Ecologist reject Industrialism
Rejection of Industrialism - Ecologists argue that the ingrained assumption of conventional ideologies and most mainstream 'grey parties' is that human life has unlimited possibilities for material growth and prosperity.
Industrialisation = super ideology that encompasses capitalism & socialism & is dedicated to materialism, utilitarian values, absolute faith in science and worship of technology
Define what is meant by "Spaceship Earth"
In 'economics and the coming of spaceship earth' BOULDING argues that humans fail to understand that they live within the constraints of a closed ecosystem.
-Earth itself is a closed ecosystem which shows evidence of entropy, a tendency to decay or disintegrate because they are not sustained by external inputs.
What is "The Tragedy Of The Commons?"
HARDIN suggested that humans are 'over-using' the resources of the planet.
-Natural resources are vulnerable because people have used common land in 'self interested ways' & exploit resources to satisfy their individual and family needs. The collective impact is that everything will become depleted and rational individual behaviour results in irrational ends.
What does Schumacher mean by "Small Is Beautiful"
Mainstream economics makes the mistake of viewing natural resources as 'an income' , that is being constantly topped up, rather than as natural capital that they are forced to live off
-resources are being used up too fast at a time when these finite fuel resources are close to depletion - end of fossil fuel era
Outline an Ecologists belief in sustainability
Ecologists argue that entropy can be slowed down considerably if everyone respects ecological principles.
-humans will only survive if they recognise that they are merely one element of a complex biosphere and only a healthy, balanced biosphere will sustain human life. Policies and actions must therefore be judged by the principle of sustainability
Outline the Shallow Ecologist perception on Sustainable Development
-Based on the belief that material prosperity can be balanced against environmental costs, developing but at a slower and more sustainable rate
-'meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs'.
i.e. Green taxes to penalise and discourage pollution to reduce the use of finite resources.
Outline the Deep Ecologist perception on Sustainable Development
-Sustainable development is not radical enough, it allows human beings to carry on as if nothing is wrong and does not solve the crisis. The origin of the crisis is seen to lie with materialism and consumerism and a fixation with economic growth, the solution relies on zero growth and construction of a post-industrial age.
i.e. back to nature approach - solution relies on zero growth and possibly a more simple localised existence with people living in small, rural communities.
Outline why Ecologist reject the contemporary liberal ethic of Utilitarianism
-conventional ethical systems are anthropocentric based around human pleasure, needs and interests
-Ecologists have developed a form of environmental ethics which extends traditional boundaries of ethics from solely humans to including the non-human world.
Outline why Ecologist reject the contemporary liberal ethic of Human Rights Theory
-If we are merely one small part of a wider 'web of life' and we have no greater priority than any other species then we should adapt our views about human rights
- For some ecologists specieism is as damaging as racism as it amounts to widespread discrimination against other species.
What are the two Shallow Ecology solutions to Environmental Ethics
1 - Intergenerational Justice / Futurity
2 - Animal/ Nature Rights
Why does Shallow Ecology believe "International Justice/Futurity" is a solution to environmental ethics?
-Ecologists are forced to extend ethical rights to present and future generations, the living and those yet to be born.
-Eco-Conservatives - custodians of the past generated wealth which should be conserved for the future generations
-Eco-socialists focus on the notion of a common-humanity and the capacity for compassion and love which is merely extended through time.
What is an example of this belief in "International Justice/Futurity?"
BURKE - Tradition involves a partnership between those who are living, those who are dead and those who are to be born.
Why does Shallow Ecology believe "Animal/Nature Rights" is a solution to environmental ethics?
-Many ecologists extend ethical rights to non-human species based on the principle of equal consideration of interests
-Human interests should not be placed above those of animals. All animals therefore have inherent rights and any action should be judged on how it effects human and animal life equally.
What is an example of this belief in "Animal/Nature Rights?"
SINGER - Advocates an altruistic concern for other species because as sentient beings they are capable of suffering.
What is the Deep Ecology solution to environmental ethics?
Biocentric Equality - can be seen as the natural consequence of environmental ethics followed by deep ecologists
- The selfish use of other life by humans is unacceptable as it assumes that human needs are more important than those of other life forms
What are some examples of this "Biocentric Equality?"
-Eastern Religion (importance of all creations and preservation of all living creatures)
-NAESS (ecosystems life and landscapes have an intrinsic right to exist so we should embrace rather than conquer the world)
-LOVELOCK (It is the health of the planet that matters the most, not that of some individual species)
Outline the Ecological critique of consumerism / materialism
Ecologism rejects Western Industrial notions of individual, personal fulfilment and self worth which promotes human self-interestedness (egoism) and material greed.
-Material scarcity creates selfish and materialist attitudes. Widespread poverty = Individuals concerned with post material 'quality of life issues
Outline the Ecological belief in Self-Actualisation
Coined by MANSLOW
-describes ongoing process of fully developing your personal potential.
-Relate self-actualisation to the transcendence of egoism and materialism, seeing it as a form of personal fulfilment focussed on 'being' not 'having'.
What is an example of Self-Actualisation?
FROMM - argues that the person always feels threatened about losing everything. Being is a humane life, existence isnt based on material wealth. Self actualisation based on what you achieve.
What is the Ecologist belief in Personal Development?
-Ecologists believe human develoment needs refocussing
-Have massive "know how" but little "know why" (wisdom to question whether these ambitions are sensible or sustainable)
SCHUMACHER - 'Man is now too clever to survive without wisdom' (need to rethink our view of personal satisfaction)
What is the Ecologist belief in Spiritual Development?
-embrace Eastern world views that offer a more ecological perspective than the individualism of the west.
-spiritual element of self-actualisation is not universally accepted, many shallow and social ecologists are sceptical of religious mysticism.
Eastern Religion - Central to buddhism is the idea of no-self which rejects the individual ego as a delusion that doesn't exist
Outline the view of the Ecological Self / Transpersonal Ecologism
-Ecological self is distinguished from the egotistic self. The self is the 'individual self' which concerns most humans includes a persons ego
NAESS - Self realisation is attained through a broader and deeper understanding of the ecological self and the realisation of the 'interconnectedness of nature'.
Outline the differences between shallow ecology and deep ecology concerning self actualisation
Shallow Ecology - Personal Development (A slight change in eco-friendly outlook) - Moderate views of self actualisation. Moderate shift of focus towards more sustainable attitude, rejection of need for spiritual growth.
Deep Ecology - Paradigm Shift / Ecosophy (A radical change in our relation to humanity) - Deep Ecologists favour a paradigm shift forming a new ideology with concepts of the self not tainted with the anthropocentrism of traditional ideologies, most recognise a spiritual side to views.
Provide a definition for shallow ecology and name its two sub-branches
Shallow Ecology - The belief that environmental problems can be solved within existing political and economic structures without radically re-structuring society.
1st Sub-branch - Liberal Environmentalism
2nd Sub-branch - Eco Conservatism
Outline the 2 key theories of Liberal Environmentalism
Enlightened Anthropocentrism - Weak ecocentrism concern for environment centred upon human interests.
Faith in idustrialisation and science - Industry, science and technology are the solution not the problem.
Outline the 2 key strategies of Liberal Environmentalism
Sustainable development / Weak sustainability - The desire for material prosperity can be balanced against environmental costs.
Environmental ethics (adapt Liberal Utilitarianism and Rights) - Based on ideas of futurity, conservation and animal welfare.
What theorist is associated with Liberal Environmentalism
SINGER - Argues that the interests of all sentient beings including non-human ones affected by an action should be taken equally into consideration
Outline the 2 key theories of Eco-Conservatism
Shallow Ecology / Weak Holism - Wish to harness the lessons of ecology to human ends and needs.
Conservative belief in tradition / preservation - Conservation of nature linked to the defence of traditional values and institutions. Conservative reaction against enlightenment, science, industrialism and romantic pastoralism.
Outline the 2 key strategies of Eco-Conservatism
Green Capitalism - Business will adopt to ecologically aware customers by producing ecologically sound goods.
Conservation - Attempts to protect the natural heritage, woodlands, forrests and so on.
What theorist is associated with Eco-Conservatism
Countryside Alliance - Belief in preserving the rural environment, architecture, heritage and way of life threatened by urban existence.
Provide a definition for social ecology and name its three sub-branches
Social Ecology - A range of ideas that recognise that the destruction of the environment is caused by / linked to existing social structure: the advance of ecological principles requires a process of radical revolutionary social change.
1st Sub-branch - Eco-Socialism
2nd Sub-branch - Eco-Anarchism
3rd Sub-branch - Eco-Feminism
Outline the 2 key theories of Eco-Socialism
Critique of Capitalism - Capitalism breeds materialism and consumerism due to need for profit which leads to relentless and unsustainable growth.
Commodification of Nature - Free Market turns nature into a commodity, something that only has use-value and can be eroded, labour and nature are both exploited. It treats them as a resource to create profit.
Outline the 2 key strategies of Eco-Socialism
Economic Planning - Balance between red and green concern, should campaign within the socialist movement and focus on economic change. Economic planning needed to focus production of goods on human needs not profit. End of commodification.
What theorists are associated with Eco-Socialism
MORRIS- Early utopian pastoral socialist advanced small scale egalitarian craft comunities living close to nature.
BAHRO - German ecosocialist. Individualism destroys natural environment due to capitalist obsession with profit, ecological crisis must take precedence over class struggle.
Outline the 2 key theories of Eco-Anarchism
Parallels between Natural and Social Order - Domination over other people linked to domination over nature. Rejection of government in society, parallels ecologist rejection of human 'rule' over nature.
A belief in spontaneous order - Believe that anarchist communities are like ecosystems. Balance and harmony spontaneously develops and both require no outside authority or control.
Outline the 2 key strategies of Eco-Anarchism
Communal living, decentralisation and self management - Non-hierarchical direct action, dislike of authority, leadership structures and hierarchy.
What theorist is associated with Eco-Anarchism
BOOKCHIN - Believed that the environmental crisis was a result of the breakdown of the organic fabric of both society and native ecological balance essential for social stability.
Outline the 3 key theories of Eco-Feminism
Intrinsic link between women and nature - Women's biological capacity to give something birth means they are connected to natural rhythms and processes. This structures their political / cultural orientations.
Women are naturally in harmony with nature - Female values have an ecological character, women recognise that nature operates in and through them and intuitively sense that personal fulfilment comes from acting with nature.
Outline the key strategy of Eco-Feminism
Female only communities / consciousness raising - Rejection of the masculine world. Women = 'the vanguard in dealing with the ecological crisis'. Equality feminists believe that patriarchy distorts men and divorces them from the nurturing private world because of division of labour. Difference feminists see men as biologically programmed to destroy nature.
What theorist is associated with Eco-Feminism
DALEY - Difference feminist who believed that women can liberate themselves from patriarchy by embracing nature.
Outline the 3 key theories of Deep Ecology
Paradigm shift - rejection of mechanistic / atomistic world view - Need for a complete change in the way we view the world
Ecocentrism / Ecosophy - Rejection of anthropocentrism according priority to nature of the planet and the maintenance of ecological balance rather than the achievement of human ends.
Radical Holism - Rejection of mechanistic reductionist view, nature seen as interconnected whole, knowledge only acquired through holism.
Outline the 4 key strategies of Deep Ecology
Transpersonal Ecologism - Rejection of materialism and individualism, promotes selfishness and greed. Self actualisation achieved by adopting the ecological self.
Strong sustainability - Rejection of industrial consumerism with profit obsession, attempt to build a truly self sufficient society.
Biocentric Equality - Rejection of utilitarian ethics which viewed nature as having only use-value.
Nature = Intrinsic Value - Nature viewed as an ethical community with each member
Outline 4 theorists of Deep Ecology
LOVELOCK - Founder of Gaia theory based on viewing the earth as one large self-sustaining organism.
CAPRA - Physicist that uses parallels between quantum physics and eastern religions to explain interconnected nature and reality.
NAESS - Founder of deep ecology, believes that humans have a special relationship with nature.
EARTH FIRST - The active political unit of deep ecology, advocate destructive monkey wrenching approach.
Outline the shared goal of Liberal environmentalism and Eco Conservatism
Balance between ecology and capitalist modernity - Maintenance and conservation of the natural world so that it can continue to support the health and prosperity of the human species.
Outline the goal of Eco-socialism
Social Revolution - Need to abolish and replace capitalism and end exploitation of nature. Classless, stateless society based around common ownership.
Outline the goal of Eco-Anarchism
Decentralised stateless society and self sufficiency - Self managed communes governed by direct democracy. Ecological balance and economic self sufficiency.
Outline the goal of Eco-Feminism
Overthrow Patriarchy and women's liberation - Women's liberation and the construction of a new relationship between human society and nature. Equality feminists Androgynous society. Difference feminists advocate female society.
Outline the goal of Deep Ecology
A human society in harmony with nature - In which anthropocentric human conerns are not placed above those of nature.