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APUSH National Politics in the Gilded Age 1877-1900
Terms in this set (35)
A period in American history from 1877-1900, or until the election of President William McKinley in 1896. Coined by Mark Twain in 1873, this period is characterized by scandals, corruptions, and political parties willing to make a strong stance on issues or deal with the problems that came about because of industrialization. There was not a president who served more than one consecutive term.
meaning that the Democrats would have control of the Southern states from the end of Reconstruction until the mid-twentieth century. Democrats were also strong among immigrants groups in the North with the help of political machines, often Catholics, Lutherans, and Jews who objected to Protestant reforms. Democrats still believed in states' rights and limited federal government powers.
A Republican senator in New York who was the leader of the Stalwarts. He became powerful by dictating who would be appointed to jobs in the New York Customs House (practiced patronage).
A faction of Republicans who rivaled for patronage with the Halfbreeds. The leader of this group was Roscoe Conkling. The Halfbreed James A. Garfield was shot dead by a Stalwart who thought he should have been appointed a position; thus, Stalwart Chester A. Arthur took over office.
A faction of the Republican party who rivaled for patronage positions with the Stalwarts. They were led by James G. Blaine. James A. Garfield was a Halfbreed, which ultimately caused his death.
Republicans who did not "play the patronage game" like the Stalwarts and Halfbreeds. They were usually the more reform-minded Republicans.
Rutherford B. Hayes
Was declared the winner of the 1876 election by the Compromise of 1877, who ended Reconstruction by withdrawing the troops from the South and tried to reestablish an honest government after Grant's corrupt one. He believed the the temperance movement. He pledged only to serve one term.
Won the election of 1880 with Stalwart Chester A. Arthur as his running mate. He was a Halfbreed from Ohio. The Democrats nominated Winfield S. Hancock, a former Union general, but they lost the close election. Because of the spoils system, the President was under pressure to appropriately fill 100,000 jobs. He chose mostly Halfbreeds, and he was shot in 1881 by a Stalwart who thought he deserved a government position. Chester A. Arthur took over the presidency.
Chester A. Arthur
Was the Republican president from 1881-1885 after Garfield was assassinated. Although he was a Stalwart, he was able to distance himself from them, unlike Garfield. He supported the Pendleton Act of 1881, which reformed the civil service, approved the development of a modern American navy, and questioned the high protective tariff. He was a better president than people expected, but was not renominated by the Republican Party in 1884.
Thomas "Czar" Reed
Became the Speaker of the House in 1890 as a Republican representative from Maine. He established an autocratic rule over the House that unfortunately lasted many years.
James G. Blaine
A Senator from Maine who was the leader of the Halfbreeds. He was poised to be a great political leader and succeeded in reshaping the Republican Party from a single antislavery platform into a business-oriented party. Nicknamed the "Plumed Knight", his reputation was tarnished as evidence was uncovered about his connection with railroad scandals and other corrupt dealings. He was the Republican candidate from president in 1884, the Mugwumps campaigned for Stephen Grover Cleveland, a Democrat.
Elected the president in 1884 and in 1892. He was seen as honest, frugal, conscientious, and uncompromising and had been the mayor of Buffalo and the governor of New York State. He was first Democrat to be elected since Buchanan in 1856. During his first term, he implemented the new civil service system, vetoed private pension bills for those falsely claiming to have served in the Civil War, signed the Commerce Act of 1887 and the Dawes Act of 1887, and retrieved 81 million acres of government land from ranchers and railroads. In his second term, he was more conservative and championed the gold standard and adopted a hands-off policy toward the economy.
"Rum, Romanism, and Rebellion"
A statement made by the Republicans about the Democratic Party during a campaign for the election of 1884. The statement contained an anti-Catholic slur, which the Democrats widely publicized. Obviously, many Catholics were offended by this phrase and voted Democrat. New York went to the Democrats because of this, causing Grover Cleveland to become elected instead of James G. Blaine.
Pendleton Act of 1881
An act created in response to the outrage caused by Garfield's assassination. It created the Civil Service Commission and created a new system in which applicants for federal jobs would be selected based on their test scores from a competitive examination. I prohibited civil servants from making political contributions. It first only applied to ten percent of federal employees, by was later expanded until most federal positions were taken out of the hands of politicians. Thus, politicians started to depend more on the rich to fund their campaigns instead of armies of workers.
A party the supported the circulation of greenbacks, or bills not backed by specie in response to the Specie Resumption Act of 1875 which withdrew the greenbacks used during the Civil War from circulation. These candidates received almost 1 million votes and 14 members were elected to Congress including the future leader of the Populist Party, James B. Weaver. The party was popular among debtors, farmers, and owners of start-up businesses. After the 1870s ended, the party died out, but the case for more greenbacks did not.
James B. Weaver
The supporter of the Greenback party who was elected to Congress to represent Iowa in the election of 1878. He was also the leader of the Populist party and ran for president in 1892. He was one of the only third-party candidates to win electoral votes (22), but lost badly in the South and did not attract urban laborers in the North. Grover Cleveland was elected president instead.
Crime of 1873
What critics called the act by Congress to stop the coining of silver
Bland-Allison Act of 1878
An act passed over Hayes' veto that allowed from a limited coinage of between $2 million and $4 million in silver a month at the standard silver-to-gold ratio of 16 to 1. It was in response to the silver discoveries in Nevada, which revived the demands for silver to expand the money supply. This act did not satisfy farmers, debtors, and miners and they continued to call for an unlimited coinage of silver.
The Republican candidate for president in the election of 1888 and the grandson of the former president William Henry Harrison. The Republicans wanted to keep the high protective tariffs (the Democrats and Cleveland, the Democratic nominee, were against them). The Republicans argued that low tariffs would ruin business prosperity to gain campaign funds from big businesses and get support from northern workers, whose jobs depended on successful U.S industry. They also got the veteran vote by attacking Cleveland's vetoes of pension bills. Thus, although Cleveland received more popular votes, __________ won by sweeping the Northern states.
After the election of Benjamin Harrison in 1888, Republicans controlled the presidency as well was both houses of Congress, which was unusual for the era of elections. It passed the first ____________ budget in U.S history and was the most active Congress of the Gilded Age. The Republican rule of Congress ended with the Congressional elections of 1890.
McKinley Tariff of 1890
raised the tax on foreign products to over 48 percent and was very unpopular among the common people, helped Grover Cleveland win the presidency in 1892
Money given monthly to Civil War veterans, widows, and children. Cleveland objected to the pension because many people lied about their service, but the pensions were raised during Harrison's presidency.
Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890
Increased the coinage of silver from the amount allotted in the Bland-Allison Act of 1873, but in amounts too small to satisfy farmers and miners.
Populist (People's Party)
The growing discontent of the farmers in the South and West and the increasing memberships to the Farmers' Alliances provided the foundation of this new political party. This party aimed to stop the concentration of economic power in the hands of trusts and bankers and met in Omaha, Nebraska in 1892 to draft their political platform. It attempted to form a political alliance between poor whites and poor blacks. James Weaver was their political candidate in the election of 1892, but lost to Cleveland. In the election of 1896, the Democrats in nominated William Jennings Bryan took over the leading issue of the __________ platform (free silver) and thus the ________ also nominated Bryan. Bryan lost to William McKinley, and the ________ party declined.
Where delegates from the Populist Party met in Nebraska in 1892 to discuss their political platform and choose their presidential candidate. In the _________ is demanded the restoration of government to the people by (1) direct popular election of senators (2) enacted state laws by voters through initiatives and referendums. The Populist platform also called for (1) unlimited coinage of silver (2) a graduated income tax (3) ownership of railroads by the U.S government (4) government ownership of telegraphs and phones (5) loans and federal warehouses for farmers so they could stabilize crop prices (6) eight-hour work day.
Panic of 1893
A depression caused by the crash of the stock market as a result of overspeculation and overbuilding by railroads and continued for almost four years. Many farms had to foreclose, and the unemployment rate reached twenty percent of the workforce. People were forced to rely on soup kitchens and ride railroads as hobos.
When silver prices declined, investors traded their silver dollars for gold dollars, and the gold reserve fell dangerously low. President Cleveland was forced to repeal the Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890, but it solve the issue. Cleveland then borrowed $65 million from the Wall Street Banker J.P Morgan to support the dollar and gold standard. This made Cleveland unpopular because people thought the government was just a tool for rich bankers to gain more money. Cleveland also lost popularity among the public worker when he used injunctions and federal troops to crush the Pullman Strike in 1894.
A march to Washington in 1894 by thousands of unemployed workers led by Jacob A. Coxey of Ohio, who was a Populist. The workers demanded that the government spend $500 million on public works programs to create jobs, but they were arrested for trespassing and forced to go home. Nothing really came out of the demonstration.
William Harvey, Coin's Financial School
A book about economics that offered easy answers for ending the Panic of 1893. It stated that Americans' problems were caused by a conspiracy of rich bankers and that prosperity would return if the government coined silver in unlimited amounts.
William Jennings Bryan, "Cross of Gold"
The Democratic and Populist candidate for president in the election of 1896. During this election, the Democrats were divided between those loyal to Cleveland to uphold the gold standard and those who were prosilver. _____________ of Nebraska delivered his famous speech at the national convention in Chicago in the summer of 1896. He campaigned all over the country and gave more than 600 speeches, but was hurt in the last weeks of his campaign by (1) a rise in wheat prices, which made farmers less desperate (2) employers threatening their workers that the factories would be shut down if he was elected. Thus, the Republican candidate William McKinley won both the popular and electoral vote, becoming president.
What the Populist and prosilver Democrats wanted during the election of 1896 to relieve America of the Panic of 1893.
"Gold Bug" Democrats
The conservative faction of Democrats who supported Grover Cleveland's stance on not increasing the silver supply and upholding the gold standard. When the rest of the Democrats nominated William Jennings Bryan as their presidential candidate, these Democrats either created the National Democratic Party or voted Republican.
The Republican candidate for presidency in the election of 1896 from Ohio who has known for his support of a high protective tariff. The Republicans blamed the Democrats for the Panic of 1893 and promised the American people a strong and prosperous industrial nation and proposed a high tariff to protect industry and to uphold the gold standard. Mark Hanna did most of the campaigning for _______, allowing the candidate to stay home and conduct a front-porch campaign, greeting delegations of supporters. ____ carried all of the Northeast and upper Midwest for a decisive victory over Bryan. He took office just as the economy began to recover and was generally well-like. He was a leader during the war with Spain in 1898 and helped make the U.S into a world power, emerging as the first modern president. He was assassinated in 1901.
The person behind McKinley's campaign strategy. He raised millions of dollars from business leaders afraid of the inflation that free silver would bring and used that money to sell McKinley through mass media. He created the model for organizing and financing a successful campaign that focused on winning publicity though use of mass media.
Dingley Tariff of 1897
Passed by the Republicans and increased the tariff rates so counteract the Wilson-Gorman Tariff of 1894 that the Democrats had passed that lowered tariffs
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