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Bio Final - Nervous System

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What makes up the central nervous system.
Brain and Spinal cord
What makes up the peripheral nervous system
Nerves and sensory organs
Cells that serve as the functional units of the nervous system
neurons - they are the nerve cells.
Three basic parts of the neuron
cell body, dendrites, and axoms
what do dendrites do
they receive and relay the nerve impulses TOWARD the cell body.
Which art of the neuron contains the nucleus and cytoplasmic organelles
cell body
What do the axoms do
they carry impulses AWAY from the cell body.
longest portion of neuron
axoms
axoms of neurons are covered by lipid layer called a
myelin sheath
special cells that produce the myelin sheath
schwann's cells
Neurons do not touch each other. Junction b/ two neurons that keeps them from touching is...
synapse
space b/ axon terminal and neuron is called
synaptic cleft
electrochemical pulse that moves along the membrane of the neuron
nerve impulse
The nerve impulse must cross synaptic cleft by using what...
neurotransmitters
3 types of neurons
sensory, interneurons, motor neurons
involuntary response to a stimulus...
reflex
Explain reflex arc
Sensory neuron in skin is stimulated and impulse is carried to central nervous system. There sensory neuron forms synapse w one or more interneurons. Interneuron passes impulse on to motor neuron which carries impulse to the muscle and a body movement happens. At same time, interneurons send impulse to barin, telling of the stimulus it received. Muscle usually reacts before brain gets the message. So reflex arcs are involuntary.
Brain and spinal cord are covered by three protective coverings called
meninges
three type of protective coverings are...
dura mater, arachnoid and pia mater.
describe dura mater
thick tough membrane containing blood vessels
describe arachnoid
thin, delicate cobweb like membrane
describe pia mater
thin membrane on surface of spinal cord and brain. contains small blood vessels.
fluid b/ pia mater and arachnoid membrane is called
cerebrospinal fluid
What does the cerebrospinal fluid do
Fills spaces around brain and spinal cord. it nourishes and cushions.
Brain weighs...
3 pounds
Brain receives how much blood pumped to the heart
20%
Color of brain
pinkish gray
Cell bodies and dendrites make up which matter of the brain...white or gray matter
gray matter
axons and myelin sheaths make up which matter of the brain...white or gray matter
white matter. They are the deeper tissues
7 regions of the brain
cerebum, thalamus, hypothalamus, midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata, cerebellum
How many hemispheres does cerebrum have
two
ridged or raised areas of the brain
gyri
deeper depressed areas of brain are called
fissures
which part of brain is responsible for conscious activities
cerebral cortex (gray matter)
4 lobes of brain -
frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal
relay center b/ spinal cord and brain
medulla oblongata. It is continuous w/ spinal cord.
part of brain that contains respiratory and cardiac control centers and controls some reflexes
medulla oblongata
2nd largest part of brain that has two hemispheres
cerebellum
Job of cerebellum
regulates activites stimulated by rest of brain
Does cerebellum work at conscious or unconscious level
unconscious
Part of brain (gray matter) that receives sensations and decides which are important enough to send on
thalamus
part of brain that helps person to stay awake and alert
thalamus
part of brain that controls involuntary activities like body temperature, appetite,
hypothalamus
part of brain b/ thalamus and pons that controls body movements, vision and hearing reflexes
midbrain
part of brain b/ medulla and midbrain that carries info from one side of brain to other.
pons
part of brain that controls facial expressions, chewing, eyeball movement
pons
how many pair of spinal nerves do we have
31 pairs
Spinal cord Gray matter is what shape...contains interneurons and cell bodies of sensory and motor neurons
Butterfly
White matter of spinal cord contains...
axons that are arranged vertically
which part of peripheral nervous system carries info FROM CNS to rest of body.
motor division
which part of peripheral nervous system carries info from body TO cns.
sensory division
Do self quiz 23A
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