anatomy ch 9 endocrine system

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hormonal stimuli
controlled by other hormones
ex: hypothalamus
humoral stimui
controlled by blood levels of certain ions
ex: parathyroid hormone (blood Ca+ levels)
neural stimuli
controlled by neurons
ex: "fight or flight" epinephrine
positive feedback
stimulus enhanced, increase hormone production
ex: childbirth
negative feedback
stimulus decreases, decrease hormone production
anterior pituitary gland
holds hormones produced by hypothalamus
-GH, PRL, ACTH, TSH, TH, gonadotropic hormones (FSH, LH, ICSH)
hypothalamus
produces hormones for pituitary gland
-releasing and inhibiting hormones, oxytocin, ADH
thyroid gland
responds to thyroid stimulating hormones (TSH) at base of the throat
-thyroxin, calcitonin, goiters, graves disease
parathyroid glands
behind the thyroid gland
-PTH (parathyroid hormone)
thymus gland
incubator for maturation of t lymphocytes
-thymosin
adrenal glands
located above the kidneys
-adrenal cortex < aldosterone, renin, cortisone, cortisol, androgens, estrogens
-adrenal medulla < epinephrine (adrenaline), norrepinephrine
pancreas
-insulin and glucagon
pineal gland
-melatonin
gonads
reproductive functions
-testes/androgens/testosterone
-ovaries/estrogens/progesterone
placenta
girl organ only!
-placental hCG
-placental estrogen and progesterone
-placental lactogen
GH
GROWTH HORMONE
anterior pituitary gland
PRL
PROLACTIN
anterior pituitary gland
protien hormone that stimulates and maintains milk production after childbirth
ACTH
ADRENOCORTITROPHIC HORMONE
anterior pituitary gland
regulates the adrenal gland
TSH / TH
THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE / THYROTROPHIC HORMONE
anterior pituitary gland
controls the thyroid gland and metabolism
gonadotropic hormones
regulate the activity of the gonads
-FSH, LH, ICSH
anterior pituitary gland
FSH
FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE
anterior pituitary gland (gonadotropic)
stimulates the production of sperms and eggs
LH / ICSH
LUTENIZING HORMONE
anterior pituitary gland (gonadotropic)
stimulates the release of eggs/ovulation
oxytocin
produced by hypothalamus, stimulates contractions and milk release
ADH
ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE
produced by hypothalamus, prevents urine production
thyroxin
produced in thyroid gland, controls metabolism, rate of glucose burning, requires iodine to be made
calcitonin
produced in tyroid gland, stimulates calcium salt deposit in bone, works in conjunction with PTH
goiters
homeostasis imbalance of the thyroid gland, enlargement of thyroid gland when diet lacks iodine
graves disease
homeostasis imbalance of the thyroid gland, when eyes bulge out of sockets
PTH
PARATHYROID HORMONE
produced in parathyroid gland, triggers the release of Ca+ ions into the blood stream from the bones, works in conjuction with calcitonin
thymosin
produced in thymus gland, programs T-cells
aldosterone
adrenal cortex of adrenal gland, regulates salt in body
renin
adrenal cortex of adrenal gland, enzyme produced when blood pressure drops
cortisone/cortisol
adrenal cortex of adrenal gland, promote normal cell metabolism and help resist long term stressors
androgens/estrogens
adrenal cortex of adrenal gland, controls male/female secondary sex characteristics
epinephrine
aka adrenaline
adrenal medulla of adrenal gland
prepare body to deal with short term stressors, increase blood pressure, breathing
insulin
released by pancreas when blood glucose levels get too high, decreases glucose in blood
causes liver to take glucose from blood and stores as glycogen
glucagon
released by pancreas, causes liver to break down glycogen and increase blood glucose levels
melatonin
produced by pineal gland, controls sleep cycles and prevents sexual maturation
androgens
aka testosterone, males only testes of gonads
responds to ICSH and FSA, control male secondary sex characteristics and the growth of the reproductive system
estrogens
females only ovaries of gonads
responds to FSA and LH, prepares uterous for pregnancy/maintains pregnancy, and prepares breasts to produce milk
placental hCG
indicates pregnancy in placenta
placental estrogen and progesterone
maintains pregnancy and lead to childbirth in placenta
placental lactogen
milk productions of breasts in placenta
physiology of endocrine system
put hormones into blood for reproduction, gowth and development, body defences, homeostasis, and metabolism
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