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Nutrition Chapter 5 - Carbohydrates
Terms in this set (77)
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen
How are carbohydrates made?
The process by which plants manufacture the sugar glucose.
Energy for plants and is stored in plants as starch.
Functions of carbohydrates in the body.
Provide body cells with energy.
Fuel higher intensity exercise.
Contain fiber which has health benefits.
How do cells convert glucose into energy?
Inside cells, glucose molecules are metabolized and energy is produced in the form of ATP - Adenosine Triphosphate.
Why do we need Carbohydrates?
It provide energy and prevent the use of protein for energy.
Without dietary CHO, our body will produce acid like compounds called ketones.
Excessive ketone production can result in high blood acidity.
How much carbohydrate do I need to eat each day to prevent ketosis?
The DRI is 130g minimum per day.
Insufficient carbohydrate intake causes the body to breakdown protein to individual amino acids and convert some of them to glucose to be used as fuel.
The different types of carbohydrates
Simple sugars, Complex Carbohydrates, Low & Moderate Glycemic Index, High Glycemic Index
What food groups contain carbohydrates? - MyPlate
Grains, Vegetables, Fruit, Dairy
The health benefits of eating whole grains, fruits and vegetables
May reduce the risk of colon cancer, heart disease,
May enhance weight loss,
Helps prevent hemorrhoids, constipation, and diverticulosis
Monosaccharides and Disaccharides.
Simple sugar that is the basic chemical unit of carbohydrates.
Glucose, fructose, galactose.
Simple sugar comprised of two monosaccharides.
Maltose - malt sugar,
sucrose - table sugar,
lactose - milk sugar.
Why is glucose the most important sugar for humans?
We need to have a certain level of glucose in our blood because the brain, nervous system, and red blood cells rely exclusively on glucose as their source of energy.
Complex Carbohydrates = Polysaccharides
Made of long chains of glucose molecules.
Compounds comprised of 10 or more monosaccharides bonded together.
Starch, Fiber, Glycogen
Storage form of glucose in plants; food sources include grains, legumes, and tubers.
Forms the support structures of leaves, stems, and plants.
Storage form of glucose in animals; stored in liver and muscles.
= made in your body
It is a rating used to predict how quickly and how high your blood glucose will rise after eating a single food containing carbohydrates.
Benefit for eating a low glycemic index foods
Help control insulin resistance, Type 2 diabetes, blood lipids, and hunger.
Examples of a high glycemic index food
Potato, White rice
Examples of a low glycemic index food
High fiber whole grains, legumes, lot fat milk products, whole fruit and leafy green vegetables.
How to tell if a food is high in added sugars
Syrup, corn syrup, "high fructose corn syrup", corn sweetener, words ending in "ose", sugar, brown sugar, honey, concentrated fruit juice sweetener.
List 4 foods high in added sugar.
Regular sodas, candy, cookies, pies, fruit punch, ice cream, sweetened milk, sweet rolls and pastries
What food from the sugar activity that we did in class had the highest sugar content?
Coca Cola, Cinnabons, Mountain Dew
4 grams of sugar =
Seeds, kernels of grass plants
Examples of grains
Wheat, rice, oats, barley, rye, corn.
Contain all the nutritive portions of the kernel: bran, germ, and endosperm.
How much portion of whole grain you should eat?
At least 1/2 of your grain servings.
Benefits of eating whole grain
An excellent source of dietary fiber, contain antioxidants and phyto-nutrients, rich in B vitamins, vitamin E, minerals.
May lower the risk for constipation, diverticulosis, CVD - Cardio Vascular Disease, Type 2 DM, obesity.
How can you determine from the food label if a food is a whole grain?
The first ingredients should be whole wheat, Oats, Brown rice.
Some other examples of whole grains.
Bulgur, barley, buckwheat, millet, triticale, quinoa, amaranth.
Food sources of fiber
Grains, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes,
2 Fiber types
Soluble - viscous,
Water insoluble - nonviscous
Health benefits of eating foods rich in soluble fiber
Lowers blood cholesterol and the risk of CVD
Slows glucose absorption, which may help control blood glucose levels
Helps feel full after eating
Foods rich in soluble fiber.
Oats, barley, legumes, apples, citrus, bananas, carrots.
Health benefits of eating foods rich in insoluble fiber
Make stools larger, and softer so the pass through the large intestine more quickly and easily than small stools formed on a low fiber diet
Prevent constipation, diverticulosis, helps with weight management.
Foods are rich in insoluble fiber
All plants. Whole wheat bread, wheat germs, brown rice, rye, vegetables
How much fiber you should eat?
38g/day for male, 25g/day for female, age in grams plus 5/day for children
Abnormal, tiny sacs that form in wall of colon.
Diverticula can painfully inflamed when bacteria and food particles are within them.
The inability to digest lactose, the sugar found in milk.
Lactose intolerance cause
It is caused by a lack of the digestive enzyme "lactase".
Breaks lactose into glucose and galactose.
Lactose intolerance symptoms
Nausea, cramps, bloating, gas, diarrhea
2 hormones help to control blood glucose levels
What release insulin & glucagon
Lowers blood glucose.
Increase blood glucose.
Eating raises blood glucose levels.
The pancreas releases the hormone insulin.
Insulin allows cells take in glucose from the blood.
= blood glucose is lowered and returns to normal levels.
Haven't eaten for 4-6 hours, blood glucose level starts to fall.
-feel lightheaded, fatigued, lack of concentration, because brain and nervous system is relying on blood glucose for fuel- Pancreas secretes the hormone glucagon.
Low blood sugar - glucose
One is excessive insulin production
Shakiness, sweating, anxiety, weakness, irregular heart beat
A disease characterized by elevated blood glucose.
It's due to inadequate amounts of the insulin, insulin resistance or both.
Type 1 Diabetes.
Used to know as "juvenile" or "insulin dependent".
Caused by the immune system's attack and destruction of the insulin producing beta cells of the pancreas.
Pancreas, in a person with Type 1 DM does not make insulin.
The characteristics of the Type 1 Diabetes
Accounts for 5-10% of cases.
Develops in childhood, adolescence, early adulthood - up to about 30.
Type 2 Diabetes
Used to be called "adult onset", or "non insulin dependent".
A person produce insulin but the body's cells to not respond to it. Cells are "insulin resistant".
Strongly related to obesity.
The characteristics of the Type 2 Diabetes
Accounts for most of the cases.
Occurs later in life and tends to run in families.
Increased occurrence of pediatric obesity in children and adolescents.
Fasting Plasma Glucose test
Normal blood glucose level - fasting
70- 99 mg/dl
Pre-diabetes blood glucose level - fasting
Diabetes blood glucose level - fasting
126 mg/dl or more
General treatment are used to manage diabetes
Monitor blood glucose.
Follow diet - keep track on carbohydrates intake to work with insulin.
Type 1 DM warning signs.
unusual weight loss,
Type 2 DM warning signs.
Any or none of the type 1 symptoms,
cuts/bruises that are slow to heal,
tingling/numbness in the hands or feet,
recurring skin, gum, or bladder infection
The long term complications associated with diabetes.
Loose eye sight,
Condition that increase risk of type 2 diabetes and CVD.
The sign of metabolic syndrome
Having 3 or more of following:
-Large waist circumference,
-Hypertension - elevated blood pressure,
Elevated blood triglycerides - blood fats,
Low fasting HDL cholesterol,
Elevated fasting blood glucose
What lifestyle choices can be made to lower the risk for metabolic syndrome?
Losing excess weight, exercising regularly, reducing the intake of salt, saturated fat, cholesterol, and simple sugars.
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