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Bioethics Final Review

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deductive
may be invalid; sound or unsound
inductive
technically always invalid
inductive
uses generalizations and inferences
deductive
two or more persons are required to drive in the diamond lane. you don't have two or more persons. therefore you may not drive in the diamond lane
inductive
involves going from specific cases to a broad or general conclusion
inductive
the conclusion is not guaranteed, one can argue against it by finding counterexamples
deductive
the conclusion is guaranteed...the premises entail the conclusion so it has to be true
inductive
all the tigers observed in a particular region have yellow black stripped, therefore all the tigers native to this region have yellow stripes
deductive
everyday i go to work. this journey from my home to my office takes one hour. my office starts at eight o'clock in the morning. so, if I leave my home at seven o'clock in the morning, I will reach my office in time
inductive
every time you eat shrimp, you get cramps, therefore you get cramps because you eat shrimp
ethics
a branch of philosophy that studies theories and arguments and why the actions are right or wrong or the state of affairs are good or bad
argument
the set of premises that help convince us that a conclusion is true
generalization
an attempt to identity the common thread or general rule, that explains why an action is right or wrong
utilitarianism
actions are judges right or wrong solely by their consequences
divine command theory
moral standards depend on god
ethical relativism
no principles are universally valid
deontology
emphasis is on moral rules and duty
virtue ethics
morals are internal
no, some laws are legal but not moral. some laws are not moral, but legal
are morality and the law the same thing?
some people's moral beliefs differ from what their religion teaches (ex: susie is catholic and pro choice)
are morality and religion the same thing?
3, 4, 2, 1
put the following statements in a natural flow. if we can prevent something very bad from happening by doing x, and if we can do x without sacrificing something of comparable moral worth, then we have a moral duty to do x. therefore, we have a moral duty to send substantial amounts of money for famine relief. by sending substantial amounts of money for famine relief, we can prevent death by starvation without sacrificing anything of comparable moral worth. death by starvation is a very bad thing
Either Elizabeth owns a Honda or she owns a Saturn.
Elizabeth does not own a Honda.
Therefore, Elizabeth owns a Saturn.
compose a valid and sound argument
valid
all teachers are mean, ms. amy is a teacher; therefore, ms. amy is mean
valid
all whales are fish, and all fish are cold-blooded; therefore, all whales are cold-blooded
invalid
if susie sion is a high school graduate, then susie is a girl. susie is not a sion high school graduate, so she is not a girl
invalid
ethics is hard, I don't like to do hard things; therefore, I will not do ethics
premise=genetic-harm
conclusion=therefore-engineering
underline premise and circle conclusion: genetic engineering is when you manipulate the dna of an organism. when this is done, it is possible that the dna may be damaged and it could cause the organism great harm; therefore, we should take precaution whenever doing genetic engineering
premises=transgenic-engineered
conclusion=transgenic-crops
underline premise and circle conclusion: transgenic crops are crops that have been genetically engineered. transgenic crops could possibly cause harm to the environment because they are "unnatural: and could end up depleting our "natural" crops.
premise=if-trees
conclusion=therefore-paper
underline premise and circle conclusion:if we waste paper, we are wasting trees. trees are a valuable resource; therefore, we should not waste paper.
premise=genetic-child
conclusion=therefore-technology
underline premise and circle conclusion: genetic screening is a way to identify is a child has a genetic disease before they are born. being able to tell if a child has a disease will allow the parents to best prepare for their new child. therefore, genetic screening is a beneficial technology.
incorrect, use natural order (therefore, cloning is morally wrong)
correct or incorrect? cloning reduces individuality. cloning is the process where an organisms' dna can be replicates and turned into a new organism. therefore, cloning is morally wrong. reducing individuality is morally wrong.
incorrect, using a premise that isn't general (feral)
correct or incorrect? using snare traps to kill the feral pigs will hurt them. so it is wrong to use snare traps to kill feral pigs.
incorrect, use consistent terms (transgenics)
correct or incorrect? genetic engineering is the process in which an organisms' genetic material is manipulated in some way. gene manipulation can be a very dangerous process. when we transfer genes between species, we may cause damage that cannot be repaired. transgenics is therefore not a good thing.
incorrect use reliable premise (first sentence)
correct or incorrect? we will never have too our our math skills in the real world, not even simple addition. therefore, i will not even attempt to learn math...its pointless.
invalid, unsound
some cats are mammals, all mammals are warm-blooded; therefore, all cats are warm-blooded
valid, unsound
all roses are red, my boyfriend gave me a rose; so my boyfriend must have given me a red rose
valid, sound
all cats are mammals, all mammals are warm-blooded;therefore, cats are warm-blooded
false 22
twenty three chromosome pairs in a human karyotype are similar in size and shape. in a human male
true
in a human karyotype, forty-four of the chromosomes are autosomes
False; Sperm
In humans, the mother determines the sex of the offspring.
False; Diploid number is 32
f an organism has 16 chromosomes in each of its egg cells, the organism's diploid number is 8.
n
The number of chromosomes in a gamete is represented by the symbol
xxx
Which of the following combination's of sex chromosomes represents a female?
meiosis
Gametes are produced by the process of
Only during cell division (Mitosis)
When during the cell cycle are chromosomes visible?
Haploid cells
Unlike mitosis, meiosis results in the formation of
Each daughter cell receives its own copy of the parent cell's DNA.
Which of the following happens when a cell divides?
46
How many chromosomes are shown in a normal human karyotype?
6
If an organism's diploid number is 12, its haploid number is
4 chromosomes
During normal mitotic cell division, a parent cell having four chromosomes will produce two daughter cells, each containing
replication
DNA is copied during a process called
one x chromosome
Human females produce egg cells that have
GATCCA
During DNA replication, a DNA strand that has the bases CTAGGT produces a strand with the bases
one allele for each gene
Gametes have
is located in the nucleus
in eukaryote's, dna
adenine molecules in dna is about equal to the percentage of thymine molecules
because of base pairing in dna, the percentage of
one x chromosome and one y chromosome
in humans a male has
each with one new strand and one original strand
dna replication results in two dna molecules
double helix
The Watson and Crick model of DNA is a ____, in which two strands are wound around each other.
alleles
The different forms of a gene are called
half
An organism's gametes have ____ the number of chromosomes found in the organism's body cells.
2 sets
How many sets of chromosomes are in a diploid cell?
if we didn't have meiosis the chromosomes would double each time
Explain what the effect would be if the gametes of a species had the same number of chromosomes as the species' body cells.
the chromosomes go from 46 diploid to haploid and are reduced by half
What happens to the number of chromosomes per cell during meiosis?
chromosomes with the same size, shape, and location, but have different alleles
Define homologous chromosomes.
false
T/F:During DNA replication, only one strand of DNA serves as template
false
T/F:Genes determine a person's eye color by coding for nitrogenous bases that affect eye color.
false
T/F:If a nucleic acid contains uracil, it is DNA
false
T/F:A codon consists of four nucleotides.
true
T/F:DNA codes for DNA polymerase.
false
T/F:The anticodon AGA is complentary to the codon TCT.
true
T/F: Frameshift mutations cause greater damage to proteins than other types of mutations.
true
T/F: Insertions and substitutions usually cause frameshift mutations
true
T/F: The human genome project determined the nucleotide sequence for all three billion base pairs in the human genome
false
T/F: Before the human genome project, it was thought that there were only 30,000 genes in the human genome; now because of the HGP we know that there are over 100,000 genes
proteins
Genes contain instructions for assembling
ribose
RNA contains the sugar
uracil
Unlike DNA, RNA contains
3
How many main types of RNA are there?
phosphate groups, guanine, and cytosine
Which of the following are found in both DNA and RNA
Messenger RNA, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA
Which type(s) of RNA is (are) involved in protein synthesis?
rna molecules
What is produced during transcription?
3
How many codons are needed to specify three amino acids?
The cell uses information from messenger RNA to produce proteins.
What happens during the process of translation?
amino acids
The order of nitrogenous bases in DNA determines the order of___ in proteins.
anticodon
The ____ of a tRNA molecule determines the type of amino acid that bonds with tRNA.
mutation
A change in a DNA seqence is called
a substitution
A DNA nucleotide sequence has changed from GACCTTCG to GACGTTCG which type of mutation has occurred?
an insertion
A DNA sequence has changed from ACGCGA to ACCGCGA, which type of mutation has occurred?
frameshift
A mutation that causes all of the amino acids after the mutation to change is called a
one
How many amino acids will change from a typical subsitution mutation?
denaturation
A change in the natural conformation of a protein due to changes in temperature or pH is called?
conformation
The shape of a protein is called its
amino acid sequence
The primary structure of a protein is its
exons
The coding segments of a gene are called
amino acid sequence
A proteins conformation is determined by its
False; same not different
The fact that human genes inserted into bacteria produce proteins shows that the basic mechanisms of gene expression are different in bacteria and humans
False; Survive
Bacterial cells that have been transformed with a plasmid that carries a genetic marker for resistence to the antibiotic tetracycline will not survive in a culture treated with tetracycline.
False; same not different
To produce a recombinant plasmid, the plasmid and the foreign DNA are cute with a different restriction enzyme.
true
Scientists use genetic markers to determine which cells have been successfully transformed
transformed bacterium
Which of the following includes all the others?
produce a natural insecticide
bt crops have an additional gene that allows them to
genetic marker
A gene that makes it possible to distinguish bacteria that carry a plasmid containing foreign DNA from those that dont is called a (an)
a bacterium takes in a plasmid
During transformation,
a gene for round-up resistance
round up ready crops contain
Genetic Engineering
The process of making changes in the DNA code of living organisms is called
bacteria
plasmids are naturally found in some
protein
A transgenic organism that has extra copies of a gene produces more of the___ that is coded for by that gene.
Bacteria reproduce to create many offspring that will also produce insulin
Why do transgenic bacteria that have the gene for human insulin produce insulin in great abundance?
Germline gene therapy (or germline engineering)
Attempts to correct genetic defects in the sperm, the egg, or a very early embryo would be classified as
transformation
A recombinant plasmid gets inside a bacterial cell by
genetic engineering
What kind of techniques do scientists use to make transgenic organisms?
Contain genes from a foreign species, are genetically engineered, have recombinant DNA
Transgenic animals are animals that
A transgenic plant, a goat that produces human proteins, a cow with recombinant dna
Which of the following is a GMO
The effects are multigenerational and it could alter human evolution
Many ethicist argue that gemline genetic modifications may be more ethically problematic than other forms of genetic modification because
Transgenic bacteria can produce human proteins in large amounts.
What is adavantage of using transgenic bacteria to produce human proteins?
Recombinant DNA
A DNA molecule produced by combining DNA from different sources is known as
All organisms use genes in the same way, gene expression is the same in all organisms, the same insulin gene is found in both humans and transgenic bacteria
Why does the human insulin gene produce the same protein in humans and in transgenic bacteria?
The penecillin will kill the bacteria that were transformed.
Suppose bacterial culture were mixed with recombinant plasmids containing a gene for resistance to penicillin. The bacterial culture was then treated with penicillin.Which of the following statements is NOT true?
a type of bacteria
bt crops contain a gene from
a gene for antibiotic resistance
which of the following is often used as a genetic marker in plasmids
a virus
Which of the following is most commonly used as a vector in gene therapy
germline genetic engineering
Which of the following could be seen as a possible eugenics movement?
gene therapy
the introduction of healthy, therapeutic genes in attempts to correct a genetic disease or disorder is
spider milk
transgenic goats have been produced that have the ability to produce
Somatic cell gene therapy
A SCIDS (severe combined immunodeficiency disorder) patient has recently made a decision to participate in a clinical research trial in which he will receive a therapeutic gene in attemps to regain immune funtion. This is an example of
3, 1, 2, 6, 5, 4
put the following events in order: dna ligase seals sticky ends (seals sugar phosphate backbone of recombinant plasmid). restriction enzyme is used to cut out the human insulin gene & to cut open plasmid. sticky ends are attracted to one another, nitrogen bases of sticky ends form H bonds. isolate the insulin. asexual reproduction. transformation occurs
GMO
genetically modified organism
PGD
pre-implanation genetic diagnosis
gamete
sperm & egg; haploid sex cells
diploid
having a 2 full sets of chromosomes; contains homologous pairs of chromosomes. In humans 2N = 46
haploid
having half the number of chromosomes of the diploid, somatic cells. In humans N = 23
chromosome
threadlike structure within the nucleus (eukaryotes only); contains the genetic material (DNA) that is passed from one generation of cells to the next.
autosome
chromosome that is not a sex chromosome
mutation
change in a DNA sequence. Could be inherited from parents DNA (for examle, a mutated gene that causes a genetic disease) or caused by chemicals known as mutagens (found in pollution, cigarette smoke, etc.) or could be a result of errors in DNA replication.
genome
the sum total of all of the genes in a given species.
enzyme
a type of protein whose function is to control chemical reactions in the body.
amino acid
one of 20 naturally occuring molecules which are put together in a specific order to make a specific protein. The order of this in a protein determines the shape the protein
will take, the proteins shape determine what function the protein will have. A mishaped protein will
not function (main cause of genetic disease).
protein
a type of macromolecule that has several functions in the body (see notes), are made of amino acids strung together in a specific order which is specified by DNA.
gene
the basic physical unit of hereditary
karyotype
the chromosomes of a cell
sex chromosome
a chromosome that determines the sex of an individual
meiosis
coverts diploid cells into haploids; occurs in the ovaries and testes
mitosis
cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes
recombinant
new combinations of genetic material
gene locus
the specific place on the chromosome where the gene is located
somatic cell
a diploid body cell (any cell in the body except a gamete)
eugenics
study or belief of improving the qualities of human species or human population
transformation
occurs when bacteria exchange plasmids
antibiotic selection
scientists use antibiotic resistance genes as genetic makers to identify which bacteria were transformed
bt crops
gene from soil bacterium; insect resistance
genetic marker
gene that makes it possible to distinguish bacteria that carry a plasmid with foreign DNA from those that don't
restriction enzyme
DNA scissors; cut DNA at specific sites known as recognition sequences
round-up ready crops
a gene for round up resistance
plasmid
a segment of DNA independent of the chromosomes and capable of replication
sticky ends
a single stranded end of DNA or RNA having a nucleotide base sequence complementary to that of another strand
biotechnology
the use of living organisms or other biological systems in the manufacture of drugs or other products
genetic engineering
the artificial manipulation of genes, or the transfer of genes from one organism to another
gene therapy
attempts to correct a disease or disorder
gene enhancement
attempts to improve a healthy individual
germ line engineering
altering the genetic make up of specific types of somatic cells within an individual
transgenic organism
containing a gene from a different species
homologous
having the same or similar relations
allele
forms of a gene, usually arising through mutation, that are responsible for hereditary variation
fertilization
The union of male and female gametes to form a zygote
bacteria
one-celled organisms, spherical, spiral, or rod-shaped and appearing singly or in chains
somatic cell engineering
changes in these cells
*does not affect sperm or egg
**Difficult to change phenotype
IVF
process in which embryos are created outside of the womb by combining sperm and egg in a petri dish.
blood stem cell (found in the bone marrow)
one of the most common examples of an adult stem cell is the
therapeutic cloning, IVF, IPS cells
pluripotetnt steam cells that are used in scientific research may come from which sources
nuclear, transfer, surrogate mother, reproductive
reproductive cloning and therapeutic cloning are both done using a technique known as______, the only difference is a ______ is necessary for______cloning
46
In humans, how many chromosomes are found in a somatic cell?
The source of her DNA was a single body cell
Why is Dolly a clone?
embryo
During the first eight weeks of human embryological development (but after attachment to the uterus), the offspring is referred to as
IVF
What is the name of the process in which embryos are created outside of the womb by combining egg and sperm samples in a petri dish?
Raelian
____ is a religion that believes that cloning is a way to eternal life.
zygote
The scientific term meaning a fertilized egg; the first stage in human embryological development
multipotent and found in all adults and children in various locations throughout the body
Adult stem cells are
creating stem cells for tissue regeneration
What is the main advantage of therapeutic cloning?
Somatic cell nuclear transfer
What is SCNT an abbreviation for?
Somatic cell, specialized cells, and differentiated cells
Skin cells, kidney cells, and lung cells are all examples of
fetus
After the eighth week of development, the offspring is reffered to as a
Body cell and egg cell
What kind of cell or cells were used to make Dolly?
A diploid nucleus and an egg
Which of the following is necessary for therapeutic cloning?
having no nuclei
The term enucleated means
Discarding embryos, donating the embryos to research, and putting the embryos up for adoption
A couple with left over embyros created through in-vitro fertilization has the choice(s) of
The clone would have 3 sets of chromosomes
Why must the nucleus of the egg be removed before being used in cloning?
totipotent
Early embryonic stem cells from the zygote to the 8-cell stage are
Trophoblast, pluripotent stem cells, inner cell mass
Which of the following could be found as part of the blastocyst?
somatic cell nuclear transfer
The most common technique or method used for cloning is called
egg and sperm
Which of the following cells would be considered haploid
surrogate mother
A_____is used to carry a child that is not genetically hers
somatic cell and zygote
Which of the following cells would be considered diploid
Brown
The diploid nucleus of a brown cow is put into the enucleated egg of a black cow, the offspring produced will look
multipotent
stem cells derived from fetal tissue are
Embryonic Stem Cells
In 2001, President Bush restricted federal funding for
The clone must be a female
In bioethics class one day, the students decided to clone their females classmate Suzie. What must be true about this clone?
23
In humans, how many chromosomes are found in the gametes
differentiation
which of the following is not a type of cloning?
multipotent
Can become only a few types of cells
haploid
Having half the number of chromosomes or one complete set of chromosomes
specialized
A cell that has a particular funtion in the body
stem cell
An undifferential cell from which specialized cells develop
diploid
Having 2 full sets of chromosomes
differentiation
The process in which kidney cells, lung cells, skin cells, and others are formed
totipotent
Can become any type of cell
pluripotent
Can become most types of cells