### circular reasoning

restating the premise rather than giving a reason for holding that premise

a---->f

__________

a------>F

### part to whole

when someone tries to say that what is true of part of something must also be true of the whole thing together

### ambiguous word

The argument unfairly exploits an ambiguity in a word by treating two different meanings of the words as if they were equivalent.

### equivocate

To speak or act in a way that allows for more than one interpretation; to be deliberately vague or ambiguous

### 3 types of ad hominym flaws

1. attack motives

2. attack character

3.attack hypocrisy (i.e. doctor says no smoking, see doctor smoking, so you think its okay to smoke)

### conclusions introduced by

therefore, thus, hence, consequently, so, it follows that, it can be concluded that

### IF formula

the part of the statement introduced by IF constitutes the sufficient condition. The other part of the statement constitutes the necessary condition

if the lake freezes, then the swans will migrate

freezes----> swans migrate

also works with WHERE instead of IF

### Only If formula

part of the statement introduced by only if constitutes the necessary condition. The other part of the statement constitutes the sufficient condition.

you can access the network only if you have a valid password

access network-----> valid password

only when, only where work as well

### all formula

the part of the statement introduced by all constitutes the sufficient condition. The other part of the statement constitutes as the necessary condition.

All vertebrates have backbones

vertebrates -----> backbones

### no formula

part of the statement introduced by no constitutes the sufficient condition. the negation of the other part of the statement constitutes the necessary condition. always applies to statements that begin with no.

no reptiles are warm blooded.

reptiles----->warm blooded(negated)

### unless formula

part of the statement introduced by unless constitues the necessary condition. The negation of the other part of the statement constitutes the sufficient condition

The boat will sink unless we repair the hull..

Boat will sink (negated) -------> repair hull

### not both formula and either or formula

julian cannot be in both london and paris at the same time.

choose one and negate it, or negate both.

either or, one has to be negated both cannot be negated

### 2 rules for quantifiers

1. always need 1 all statement

2. need to have same thing occurring on the sufficient side of the equation

all statement must come before some or most

a----b

a some c

____________

b some c

=

aaa

bbbb

cc

one exception to all rule is when you have 2 most rules to conclude a some relationship