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GOVT 2305 Quiz: Chapter 1
Terms in this set (53)
A parliamentary system is different from a presidential system primarily because
In a presidential system, the executive and legislative branches are separate
What best describes the relationship between transaction costs and conformity costs?
The relationship is inverse as efforts to reduce transaction costs serve to increase conformity costs
Which barrier to collective action is generally considered the easiest to overcome?
What is true about the constitution of a nation?
It creates the governing institutions and the set of rules prescribing the political process these institutions must follow to reach and enforce collective agreements
The free-rider problem describes
the decision of an individual to withhold his or her contribution from collective group action
The fear that a party to a political negotiation may renege on or fail to abide by any agreement may lead to what?
War as the preferred alternative
All organizations are governed by rules and procedures
for making and enforcing decisions
Institutions tend to be
stable and resistant to change
A "prisoner's dilemma" arises
Whenever individuals who ultimately would benefit from cooperating with each other also have a powerful and irresistable incentive to break the agreement and exploit the other side
Political institutions include
A set of rules prescribing a political process for reaching and enforcing collective agreements
Modern democracies blend delegation and majority rule together into what is known as
Hobbes's argument in Leviathan can be restated as
monarchs offer a cost-effective means to collective action
Because of the large size of populations and the complexity of the issues to be resolved, the degree of success populations in nations have in politics depends largely on
Whether they have developed constitutions and governments that work
What are two features of public goods?
Their costs are borne collectively and no one can be excluded from their benefits
The difference between parliamentary systems of government and the system of government contained in the Constitution is
the separation of powers contained in the U.S. Constitution imposes higher transaction costs than in parliamentary government
Government institutions consist of
Offices that confer on their occupants specific authority and responsibilities
The Framers designed a government that
by minimzing conformity costs through increased transaction costs such as separation of powers and limited national authority
Following the 2014 midterm elections, President Obama and congressional Republicans promised to work together, but the the experience from 2010 suggests that
working together comes with compromises that neither side is particularly excited about
Why is the prisoner's dilemma a critical part of American politics?
Successful exchanges occur when each side recognizes they will be better off with a collective outcome rather than acting alone
What does not explain why institutions are stable and resistant to change?
The specific authority of each institution prevents any changes from occurring
Politics occurs whenever a solution to a problem requires cooperation even when that cooperation is
Costly or difficult
The free-rider problem is often found in
Constitutions, charters, and bylaws all serve what purposes
Guiding the organization's members in making essentially political decisions
What is true about direct democracy, where citizens participate directly in collective decision making?
It typically is reserved for small communities and organizations
What is example of agenda control?
Political parties nominating candidates in a primary
Without rules and procedures for promoting successful collective action, as participants and preferences multiply
unstructured negotiation rarely yields a collective decision all parties can accept
What is an example of collective action?
Organized crime families jockey over turf for illegal activity
To say we regard preferences as "givens" means
Individuals and groups know what they want
The U.S. Constitution was intended to do what?
Reassure diverse interests that they would be better off under the new system
A prominent cue that helps individuals recognize the preferences of others with whom they want to cooperate is called a (an)
Bargaining and compromise
is essential for producing successful political outcomes
The statement "War is politics by other means" suggests
War happens when the bargaining of politics fails
Command authority cuts through both coordination and prisoner's dilemma problems by
By conferring the authority to impose a solution regardless of the preference of others
What is a good formal definition of politics?
The process through which individuals and groups reach agreement on a course of common action even as they continue to disagree on the goals of the action
The idea that "social choices breed conflict" is especially true
when the choices involve issues that affect the political parties' core constituencies
Why do citizens often look to government to provide public goods?
Government has coercive authority to prevent free riding and the necessary resources to undertake expensive projects
What is a formal definition of a government?
Those institutions created by a constitution and the legally prescribed process for making and enforcing collective agreements
can be solved by larger groups seeking to solve problems by designating and following a leader
A simple majority is defined as
one-half plus one
What are transaction costs?
The time, effort, and resources required to make collective decisions
The difference between authority and power is
Authority is the right to make a particular decision and power is the actual influence the institution has over that action
The fight over the extension of slavery into the western territories and the resulting Civil War demonstrates that
some issues do not offer mutual gains through cooperation
The problem that arises from the costless consumption by a large number of individuals of a public good that results in its ruination is called
a tragedy of the commons
The discrepancy between what principals ideally desire and what agents actually do is called
is a product of politics and some institutions may convey advantages on some interests over others
The history of fire protection in America can best be described as
The evolution of a private good to a governmental responsibility
"Collective action" refers to
The efforts of a group to reach and implement agreements
The collapse of the cod fishing industry off the coast of New England is a real-life analogy of
The tragedy of the commons
The veto is similar to command authority because it is
The tragedy of the commons can be solved through
regulation and privatization
An increase in the number of veto holders does what?
Increases transaction costs
Assigning authority to make and implement decisions to a smaller number of persons who are expected to act on behalf of the larger group's interest is an example of
One of the fundamental problems for government is reconciling preferences because
a diversity of preferences is natural among men
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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