42 terms

Bioethics Final Vocab

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gamete
sex cell
homologous
chromosomes that each have a corresponding chromosome from the opposite-sex parent
gene
sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait
chromosome
a threadlike body in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear order
autosome
any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome
karyotype
a model of all 46 chromosomes of a person
allele
the different forms a gene can take
sex chromosome
a chromosome that determines the sex of an individual
haploid
cells that contain half the number of chromosomes; sex cells are haploid
meiosis
cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms
recombinant
combined DNA
fertilization
process in sexual reproduction in which male and female reproductive cells join to form a new cell
mitosis
the process in which the nucleus divides to form two identical nuclei; happens in the body
diploid
somatic cell, (genetics) an organism or cell having two sets of chromosomes
gene locus
gene location
somatic cell
body cell; diploid
genome
all the DNA in one cell of an organism
mutation
any event that changes genetic structure
enzyme
specialized proteins that speed up chemical reactions
protein
a class of nutrients that builds body tissues and supplies energy. protein is made of amino acids.
amino acid
basic building blocks of protein molecules
eugenics
science dealing with improving the human race
transformation
the transfer of genetic material in the form of DNA fragments from one cell to another or from one organism to another
antibiotic selection
scientists use antibiotic resistance genes as genetic makers to identify which bacteria were transformed
Bt crops
gene in bacteria commonly found in soil, insect resistant
genetic marker
a gene that makes it possible to distinguish bacteria that carry a plasmid with foreign DNA from those that don't
restriction enzyme
enzyme that cuts DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotides
round up ready crops
Crops that have been genetically engineered to be resistant to herbicides
bacteriophage
a virus that infects bacteria
plasmid
circular DNA molecule found in bacteria
bacteria
single-celled organisms that lack a nucleus; prokaryotes
sticky ends
Single stranded sticky ends of DNA left after cutting with enzymes
biotechnology
the branch of engineering science in which biological science is used to study the relation between workers and their environments
genetic engineering
making changes in the DNA code of a living organism
gene therapy
The insertion of working copies of a gene into the cells of a person with a genetic disorder in an attempt to correct the disorder
gene enhancement
attempts to improve a healthy individual's genes
germline engineering
altering the genetic make up of specific types of somatic cells within an individual
somatic cell engineering
changes in the somatic cells; does not affect sperm or egg, Difficult to change phenotype
PGD
preimplantation genetic diagnosis - a single cell is removed from the 8 cell embryo and tested
IVF
in vitro fertilization; a technique in which eggs are surgically removed from a woman and fertilized with sperm in the laboratory and then put into a women's uterus
GMO
[genetically modified organism] an organism that has acquired one or more genes by artificial genes.
transgenic organism
organisms that contain functional recombinant DNA from a different organism