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sex cell


chromosomes that each have a corresponding chromosome from the opposite-sex parent


sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait


a threadlike body in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear order


any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome


a model of all 46 chromosomes of a person


the different forms a gene can take

sex chromosome

a chromosome that determines the sex of an individual


cells that contain half the number of chromosomes; sex cells are haploid


cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms


combined DNA


process in sexual reproduction in which male and female reproductive cells join to form a new cell


the process in which the nucleus divides to form two identical nuclei; happens in the body


somatic cell, (genetics) an organism or cell having two sets of chromosomes

gene locus

gene location

somatic cell

body cell; diploid


all the DNA in one cell of an organism


any event that changes genetic structure


specialized proteins that speed up chemical reactions


a class of nutrients that builds body tissues and supplies energy. protein is made of amino acids.

amino acid

basic building blocks of protein molecules


science dealing with improving the human race


the transfer of genetic material in the form of DNA fragments from one cell to another or from one organism to another

antibiotic selection

scientists use antibiotic resistance genes as genetic makers to identify which bacteria were transformed

Bt crops

gene in bacteria commonly found in soil, insect resistant

genetic marker

a gene that makes it possible to distinguish bacteria that carry a plasmid with foreign DNA from those that don't

restriction enzyme

enzyme that cuts DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotides

round up ready crops

Crops that have been genetically engineered to be resistant to herbicides


a virus that infects bacteria


circular DNA molecule found in bacteria


single-celled organisms that lack a nucleus; prokaryotes

sticky ends

Single stranded sticky ends of DNA left after cutting with enzymes


the branch of engineering science in which biological science is used to study the relation between workers and their environments

genetic engineering

making changes in the DNA code of a living organism

gene therapy

The insertion of working copies of a gene into the cells of a person with a genetic disorder in an attempt to correct the disorder

gene enhancement

attempts to improve a healthy individual's genes

germline engineering

altering the genetic make up of specific types of somatic cells within an individual

somatic cell engineering

changes in the somatic cells; does not affect sperm or egg, Difficult to change phenotype


preimplantation genetic diagnosis - a single cell is removed from the 8 cell embryo and tested


in vitro fertilization; a technique in which eggs are surgically removed from a woman and fertilized with sperm in the laboratory and then put into a women's uterus


[genetically modified organism] an organism that has acquired one or more genes by artificial genes.

transgenic organism

organisms that contain functional recombinant DNA from a different organism

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