chromosomes that each have a corresponding chromosome from the opposite-sex parent
sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait
a threadlike body in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear order
any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome
a model of all 46 chromosomes of a person
the different forms a gene can take
a chromosome that determines the sex of an individual
cells that contain half the number of chromosomes; sex cells are haploid
cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms
process in sexual reproduction in which male and female reproductive cells join to form a new cell
the process in which the nucleus divides to form two identical nuclei; happens in the body
somatic cell, (genetics) an organism or cell having two sets of chromosomes
body cell; diploid
all the DNA in one cell of an organism
any event that changes genetic structure
specialized proteins that speed up chemical reactions
a class of nutrients that builds body tissues and supplies energy. protein is made of amino acids.
basic building blocks of protein molecules
science dealing with improving the human race
the transfer of genetic material in the form of DNA fragments from one cell to another or from one organism to another
scientists use antibiotic resistance genes as genetic makers to identify which bacteria were transformed
gene in bacteria commonly found in soil, insect resistant
a gene that makes it possible to distinguish bacteria that carry a plasmid with foreign DNA from those that don't
enzyme that cuts DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotides
round up ready crops
Crops that have been genetically engineered to be resistant to herbicides
a virus that infects bacteria
circular DNA molecule found in bacteria
single-celled organisms that lack a nucleus; prokaryotes
Single stranded sticky ends of DNA left after cutting with enzymes
the branch of engineering science in which biological science is used to study the relation between workers and their environments
making changes in the DNA code of a living organism
The insertion of working copies of a gene into the cells of a person with a genetic disorder in an attempt to correct the disorder
attempts to improve a healthy individual's genes
altering the genetic make up of specific types of somatic cells within an individual
somatic cell engineering
changes in the somatic cells; does not affect sperm or egg, Difficult to change phenotype
preimplantation genetic diagnosis - a single cell is removed from the 8 cell embryo and tested
in vitro fertilization; a technique in which eggs are surgically removed from a woman and fertilized with sperm in the laboratory and then put into a women's uterus
[genetically modified organism] an organism that has acquired one or more genes by artificial genes.
organisms that contain functional recombinant DNA from a different organism
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