How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

87 terms

Oceanography

STUDY
PLAY
Characteristics of a anthropod
Exoskeleton
Articulation of appendages
Striated muscle
Define: Anthropod
lobsters, shrimp, krills, barnacles. Most successful.
Not a characteristic of anthropod
Asymmetry
What class is comprised of nautiluses, octopuses, and squid?
Cephalopoda
What is considered the most advanced animal phyla?
Chordata
Chondrichthyes include
Sharks
Rays
Skates
Tuna is in the ____ class
Teleostei within osteichthyan
What class includes bony fish species such as mackerel?
Osteichthyes
Which worm has a segmented body plan?
Annelida
are the least successful vertebrate in the marine environment
Amphibians
Cnidarians are considered the most primitive true animal?
False
The most primitive true animal is....
Poifera
Where are Echinodermata found?
exclusively in marine habitats
What is the transitional organism from invertebrates to vertebrates?
Amphioxus
What makes up the greatest biomass of any species on Earth?
Krill
Which of the following is an invertebrate chordate?
Tunicates
What do the simplest vertebrates lack?
Jaws
What comprises an arthropod's exoskeleton?
Chitin
What is the most recent marine mammal with respect to evolution?
Sea Otters
Cetaceans are comprised of Manatees, dolphins, seals, and sea otters
False, Mammalia
What are Cetaceans comprised of?
The toothed whale (Odontoceti) and filter feeders (Mysticeti)
This suborder include the largest animals to ever inhabit the earth.
Mysticete
Barnacles are molluscs.
False
What are barnacles?
Phylum Arthropoda
What has baleen instead of teeth?
Mysticete
In terms of density, what is the most common distribution
Clumped
What type of water is a mixture of both freshwater and seawater?
Brackish water
What is the study of the relationships of organisms and the interactions in the community
Ecology
What is a community
A group of interacting organisms of different species sharing a common living space
An Estuary...
Has a standing biomass per unit of surface area is the highest among any marine community
Typically has brackish water
Is where freshwater and seawater mix
An organism's address within it's community, it's physical location is also known as....
habitat
A niche is:
an organism's role in the community
Salinity, Temperature, Wave Shock are:
Physical Factors
A stable, long-established community is known as a
climax community
An organism with a wide range of tolerance for salinity changes is said to be...
Euryhaline
A stenothermal organism might be best adapted for which condition?
1-2° C
There is no photosynthesis occurring in the deep water because of the permanent darkness. For the most part, consumers rely on the biological activity above them for nutrients.
True
What process re-establishes climax communities after a major disruption in the environment?
Succession
This community is named the deep scattering layer due to its tendency to reflect sound pulses which make it appear like a false bottom to people above. The scattering layer itself is comprised of a dense population of fish, squid, and other vertical migrators.
Deep Scattering Layer
What do many deep water organisms use for feeding and the attraction of mates?
Bioluminescence
Why was the feeding strategy of giant tube worms, Riftia, such a mystery to scientists when they were first discovered?
These worms have no mouth.
These worms have no digestive tract.
These worms have no anus.
What can occur when organisms are exposed to air and sunlight?
Desiccation
What is thought to aid the proliferation and spread of hydrothermal vents?
Whale falls
Characteristics of deep water animals
Deep water organisms tend to move slowly.
b.
Deep water organisms require little food to survive.
c.
Deep water organisms have a high metabolic rate.
d.
Deep water organisms tend to have a long life span.
Wave shock is a not a problem for intertidal organisms. It gently bathes the area around them and exerts very little force on the organisms.
False
What is considered to be the world's most important commercial marine product?
Algin
What tools do fishermen now employ to locate schools of fish?
Scouting vessels
Satellite sensors
Ariel photography
What is the fastest-growing mariculture production?
Shrimp
Why does oil seep to the surface from its source rock?
Oil is less dense than surrounding sediments
What marine resource has been rendered uneconomical due to the high cost of extraction?
Manganese nodules
What is the petroleum found in marine sediments likely to have been formed from?
Bacteria
How much of the world's table salt is produced by the evaporation of seawater?
One third
What is the second most valuable marine resource?
Gravel
What is the main species of whale targeted by the Japanese and Norwegian whalers?
Minke whales
What kind of resource is waste disposal?
Nonextractive resource
What is bycatch?
Organisms unintentionally killed during the harvesting of a different, desirable species
Who is responsible for the consumption of approximately a quarter of the global oil supply?
United States
Many harvested marine animals are sustainable because they are being caught below the maximum sustainable yield
False; 90% disappeared in last 50 years
Nonrenewable resources are unable to be replenished over short time spans. These resources include oil, gas, and solid mineral deposits
true
The motion of the waves can be used to generate energy.
true
Algin is a biological resource extracted from seaweed and is an important commercial product used:
to stiffen fabrics
as a thickener or emulsifier
to prevent large crystals in ice cream
to clarify beer and/or wine
Of the top five fish-harvesting nations, which one catches the most?
China
A mid-water trawl net is large enough to:
hold one dozen 747 jet liners
An unintentional but unavoidable consequence of drift net fishing is the drowning of larger non-target species such as sea lions, sharks, and other large animals
true
Archaean organisms can be used in detergents.
True
What determines an organism's response to a particular pollutant?
The quantity of the pollutant
The toxicity of the pollutant
The persistence of the pollutant
How long does it take for many plastics to decompose?
400 years
How long does marine life usually tend to recover from a crude oil spill?
5 years
Who was responsible for the environmental movement?
Rachel Carson
What happens when corals exceed their normal temperatures for too long of a period of time?
Corals eject their zooxanthellae
How do the insoluble components of oil affect the ocean?
Prevent free diffusion of gas
Clog feeding structures Decrease the amount of light penetrating the surface
Why is the ozone layer important?
It protects Earth from ultraviolet rays.
What percentage of marine pollutants originates from human activities on land?
77%
Based on MARPOL, what type of material is illegal to dump at sea any distance from shore?
Plastic
Where does the largest addition of oil to the ocean come from?
Natural seeps of crude oil
Although these are all common in our atmosphere, which one is not a greenhouse gas?
Nitrogen
Which of the greenhouse gases is considered the number one global warming gas?
Carbon dioxide
Which habitat is the most impacted by pollutants?
Estuaries
What is favorable news associated with global warming—perhaps one of the few advantages?
The Northwest Passage may open
Which oil is more harmful?
...
Crude oil is more harmful to the environment than refined oil.
False
The acceptance of global energy change is difficult because fossil fuels power most of the world economies
True
The depletion of the ozone layer near the poles had a major impact on the productivity of plankton. This is because the plankton was receiving too much
UV Light
In some cases, areas where oil spills were cleaned had communities in worse shape than in areas where an oil spill was left alone.
True
There is an area is the North East Pacific where plastic has been accumulating for a long time and has come to be known as:
The East Pacific Garbage Patch
Until recently, in the past 400,000 years, carbon dioxide had never exceeded ppm.
300
In what era do we see the most dramatic rise in carbon dioxide
The Industrial Revolution