Factors in the start of the Hundred Years' War
Rivalry of England and France as the two strongest Western European Powers, The land held by English kings in southwestern France, Manufacture of woolen textiles in Flanders, The English king's claim to the French throne.
Tactics used by Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain
Directly limiting the constitutions of Aragon and Castile to enhance their power and persuing an aggressive policy in acquiring Italian lands.
Factors undermining the influence of the Catholic Church in the Middle Ages
an increase of nationalism, the rise of strong monarchs in England and France, the new economic emphasis on money, and the growth of humanism
Reasons the Protestant Reformation was successful
kings wanted to contain absolute control, land hungry nobility wanted church property, an alienated middle class, and spirit of questioning and individualism
absolute state=protestant reformation
political and religious divided, which had formerly weakened the power of the political ruler
Martin Luther's beliefs
papal infallibility, Jan Hus's doctrines were not heretical, attack on the sale of Indulgences, and salvation through faith alone
Was not a principle motive for European colonization in the in the 15th and 16th centuries
overcrowding due to industrial agglomeration
Thirty Years War
developed a more modern state system, breaking up the HRE, moving the focus of economic wealth from central to western Europe, religious diversity
Provisions of the Treaty of Utrecht
French and Spanish thrones were to remain permanently separate, duchies of Prussia and Savoy became kingdoms, Dutch could build and maintain fortresses, and France recognized the English Hanoverian succession.
"Tyranny is the exercise of power beyond right, which nobody can have a right to; and this is making use of the power any one has in his hands, not for the good of those who are under it, but for his own private, separate advantage."
Valid knowledge is discovered from sensory experience and observation, the scientific method
19th century British imperial policy
expanding British control in southern Africa, establishing trading posts in India, opening China to western trade, and promoting the sale of opium in China
steam powered shipe, medical advancements, improved weapons, and nationalists movements in Western Europe
contributing factors to European territorial expansion
Indian suspicions that the British wanted to stifle native religions, rumors rifle cartridges contained animal fats, British efforts to eliminate sati, and Indian nationalism and objections to Britian's annexing territory
Causes of the Sepoy Rebellion
Baron de Montesquieu
English adopted responsible government because their northern climate made them enthusiastic and hearty
What allowed serfs independence from their landowning nobles but kept them tied to villages?
The 1861 Emancipation Edict of Russia
a reaction to religious wars, subjected religion to the scientific processes, emphasized the role of reason in finding truth, and was a religion all mankind could accept without controversy
Who gained social and political attention by using radical and somewhat violent tactics
The Women's Social and Political Union
What did the Marshall Plan do?
It promised extensive financial aid to European nations sponsored by the United States to get nations receiving aid to pledge cooperation
What caused France to quit their colonial efforts in Indochina in 1954?
It lost the battle at Dien Bien Phu
phinosophical disputes over abou the meaning and path of the Communist expansion lead to
the Sino-Soviet split
Cause: Dreyfus case
Effect: a long lasting political divide between liberal and conservative thinkers in France that weakened The Third Republic until it was defeated by Germany
Alexander II of Russia
reformed serfdom practices, improved the army, reorganized the judicial system, and "Russified" Poland
Causes for the outbreak of WWI
Bismarck's dismissial of William II of Germany, Serbian nationalism, imperialistic competition in Africa, and Moroccan Independence
Lenin and Maxism disagreed
Lenin criticized labor unions for their focus on short-term goals rather and long-term commitment to revolutionary change
What America joined WWI
Britian exaggurated stories of German atrocities against civilians, the Germans followed a policy of unrestricted submarine warfare, and the Zimmerman telegram angered Americans
why the Russian provisional government failed under Kerensky
it continued Russia's participation in WWI
What was Lenin's program to appease peasants and increase agricultural production?
The New Economic Policy
Cause: The Lateran Pact of 1929
Effect: a virtual alliance between the Catholic Church and Mussolini
What did the Beer Hall Putsch provide Hitler with?
a political forum to popularize him ideas through
Adolf Hitler's speech most likely would have addressed the following ideas in a speech
criticism of the Treaty of Versailles, promoting economic status of working women, criticism of the Weimer Republic, praise for German nationalism, and promises of increased employment
In 1933, the Reichstag Fire was a turning point in Hitler's rise to power because it allowed Hitler to prey upon the German fear of communist infiltration, which allowed him to do what?
It increased public acceptance of his suspension of civil liberities