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micro test 4 archaea and eubacteria

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peptidoglycan
archaea cell wall lacks
1970
domain archaea discovered in
Carl woese; rRNA sequencing
cclassified into the Domain Achaea by ___ based on ___
Methanogen;
extreme halophiles;
hyperthermophyle
3 major groups of archaea
methanogens
strict anaerobes; produce methane from carbon dioxide and hydrogen
extreme halophiles
require high salt concentrations or survival
hyperthermophiles
grow in extremely hot condition
methanobacterium
methanogen;
have economic importance;
used in sewage-treatment to convert sewage sludge into methane gas (CH4);
Archaea;
methanogens
also inhabit human colon, vagina, and mouth
Halobacteriuam and halococcus
extreme halophiles;
live in the Great Salt lake (15-27% salinity; ocean = 3.5 % salt)
Sulfolobus
Hyperthermophiles;
can thrive in acidic pH2, sulfur-rich hot springs >70ºC
hyperthermophiles
some can live around hydrothermal vents (~100ºC) or within tube worms that live in hydrothermal vents of the ocean floor
Thermoplasma acidophilus
hyperthermophile;
can produce hydrogen gas from glucose
Thermococcus litoralis
DNA polymerase from ___, VentR, is used in PCR;
protein not denatured at 98ºC
domain Eubacteria
-prokaryotic cells;
-differ from Archaea based on rRNA squencing;
-Contain peptidoglycan cell wall;
-very diverse and grouped into different phyla
Phylum Proteobacteria
includes most of the gram negative chemoheterotrophic bacteria;
-largest taxonomic group of bacteria;
-separated into 5 classes
Alphaproteobacteria;
Betaproteobacteria;
Gammaproteobacteria;
Deltaproteobacteria;
Epsilonproteobacteria
5 classes of proteobacteria
proteobacteria
Azpsprilillum is in phylum
proteobacteria
Acetobacter is in phylum
proteobacteria
Rickettsia is in phylum
proteobacteria
Ehrlichia is in phylum
proteobacteria
Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobiuam are in phylum
proteobacteria
Agrobacterium is in phylum
proteobacteria
Bartonella is in phylum
proteobacteria
Nitrobacter is in phylum
proteobacteria
Wolbachia is in phylum
Azospirillum
Genus ___, (Proteobacteria) is an important agricultural bacteria that fixes nitrogen from the atmosphere for plants and receives nutrients from the plants;
-live symbiotically with tropical grasses and termperate-climate plants (ie corn)
Acetobacter
Genus ___, (Proteobacteria) is industrially important aerobic bacteria that convert ethanol to vinegar (acetic acid)
Rickettsia
(Proteobacteria)
rod-shaped and gram-negative;
obligate intracelluler parasites which can only reproduce within a host cell - endothelial cells
Rikettsia prowazekii
(Proteobacteria)
causes epidemic typhus and is transmitted to humans by insect (tick and lice) bites;
-reproduce by binary fission once inside host cell;
-can be cultivated in cell culture or in chick embryos;
-in humans, damage the permeability of blood capillaries
-results in characteristic spotted rash
Ehrlichia
(Proteobacteria)
are gram negative organism that live obligatory within white blood cells;
Ehrlichiosis
caused by a Proteobacteria
symptoms: fever, thrombocytopenia (few # of platelets in blood) and leukopenia (decreasing # of circulating leukocytes in the blood)
Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium
(Proteobacteria)
•important to agriculture;
•they form symbiotic relationship with legumes, such as beans, peas and clover, by forming nodules on the roots of the plant.;
•bacteria fix nitrogen from the air fro the plants and receive nutrients from the plant
Agrobacterium
(Proteobacteria);
can invade plant tissue, but do not form nodules or fix nitrogen
Agrobacterium tumefaciens
is a plat pathogen that causes a disease of plants called crown gall;
-it inserts a plasmid that contains bacterial genetic material into the plant's chromosomal DNA;
-by studying this organism, scientist hope to eventually use it as a vehicle for inserting useful genetic information into plants, which is very difficult to do
Bartonella
(Proteobacteria);
rod -shaped Gram - bacteria;
several members are human pathogens
Bartonella henselae
causes cat-scratch fever (cause fatigue and headaches, backache, convulsion);
-disease usually resolved within month;
-can is vector; kittens are more likely to carry the bacteria in their blood
NItrobacter
(Proteobacteria);
are chemoautotrophs;
energy source is reduced nitrogenous compounds
nitrobacter and nitrosomonas
(Proteobacteria)
oxidize ammonium (NH4) and nitrite (NO2) which is converted into nitrates (NO3);
-nitrate in soil is used by plants; therefore, very important in agriculture
Wolbachia
(Proteobacteria);
-live only inside the cells of their host (endosymbiont), usually insects and nematodes;
-can effect sexual development of some insects;
-can turn males into females by interfering with the male hormone;
-can produce parthenogenic females
Proteobacteria
Thiobacillus is in phylum
Proteobacteria
Spirillum is in phylum
Proteobacteria
Burkholderia is in phylum
Proteobacteria
Bordetella is in phylum
Proteobacteria
Neisseria is in phylum
Proteobacteria
Zoogloea is in phylum
Thiobacillus
Proteobacteria;
chemoautotrophs
-capable of obtaining energy by oxidizing the reduced forms of sulfur, such as H2S (hydrogen sulfide), or elemental sulfur in sulfates (SO42-);
-sulfates are used by plants and bacteria to form sulfur-containing amino acids for humans and other animals to use
Spirillum
Proteobacteria;
gram negative spiral bacteria;
-found mainly in fresh water;
-motile by polar flagella
Burkholderia
Proteobacteria;
motile by single polar flagellum
Burkholderia cepacia
Proteobacteria
gram - rod;
are able to metabolize more than 100 different organic molecules;
-can contaminate equipment and drugs in hospitals;
-may grow in disinfectant solutions;
-can be a problem in cystic fibrosis patients because it metabolizes accumulated respiratory secretions
Bordetella
Proteobacteria
gram - rod;
virulent forms have capsules
Bordetella pertussis
causes whooping cough
Neisseria
Proteobacteria;
gram - diplococci;
usually inhabit the mucous membranes of mammals;
Niesseria gonorrhoeae;
Neisseria meningitidis -meningococcal meningitis
pathogenic members of genus Neisseria
Zoogloea
Proteobacteria
members of this genus are important is sewage treatment
Proteobacteria
Beggiatoa is in phylum
Proteobacteria
Pseudomonas is in phylum
Proteobacteria
Azotobacter and Azomonas are in phylum
Proteobacteria
Moraxella is in phylum
Proteobacteria
Legionella is in phylum
Proteobacteria
Vibrio is in phylum
Proteobacteria
Escherichia is in phylum
Proteobacteria
Salmonella is in phylum
Proteobacteria
Shigella is in phylum
Proteobacteria
Klebsiella is in phylum
Proteobacteria
Serratia is in phylum
Proteobacteria
Proteus is in phylum
Proteobacteria
Yersinia is in phylum
Proteobacteria
Enterobacter is in phylum
Proteobacteria
Hemophilus or Haemophilus is in phylum
Beggiatoa
Proteobacteria;
secretes slime to help with motility by gliding;
Beggiatoa alba
uses hydrogen sulfide (H2S) as an energy source
Pseudomonas
Proteobacteria;
gram - rods;
motile by polar flagella
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Proteobacteria
•produces a blue-green pigment;
•under the right conditions, particularly in weakened hosts, these organisms can infect the urinary tract, burs, and wounds and can cause septicemia, abscesses (pus), and meningitis;
•can grow on soap residues and some antiseptics such as quats;
•are resistant to most antibiotics due to small size of the cell wall porins and ability to pump out antibiotics
Azotobacter and Azomonas
Proteobacteria;
free-living in the soil;
nitrogen fixers
Moraxella
Proteobacteria;
aerobic coccobacilli
Moraxella lacunata
Proteobacteria
is implicated in conjunctivitis
Legionella; legionellosis; Legionnaries'
Proteobacteria
contains 6 species;
causes ___ ( ___ disease cause pneumonia);
-does not grow on usual laboratory media;
-a specially buffered charcoal-yeast extract agar was developed for use in its isolation and growth;
-can grow within macrophages;
-found in streams and can colonize warm-water supply lines in hospital;
-does not stain with usual stains
Vibrio
Proteobacteria;
facultative anaerobic gram - rods;
slightly curved
Vibrio cholerae
Proteobacteria
causes cholera
Vibrio parahaemolyticus
Proteobacteria;
causes less serious gastroenteritis and is transmitted to humans mostly by raw or undercooked shellfish
Escherichia
Proteobacteria;
common inhabitant of the intestinal tract
Escherichia coli
Proteobacteria;
not usually pathogenic but may cause urinary tract infections and certain strains produce enterotoxins that cause travelers' diarrhea and occasionally cause very serous food- born disease
Salmonella; typhoid
Proteobacteria;
-almost all members of this genus are potentially pathogenic;
-are common inhabitants of the intestinal tract of animals;
gatrointestinal diseases less severe that ___ fever are caused by other strains of this species
Salmonella typhi
Proteobacteria;
causes typhoid fever;
-cells multiply within phagocytic cells
Shigella; shigellosis
Proteobacteria;
members of this genus are responsible for bacillary dysentery or ___;
-can also cause travelers' diarrhea;
-some strains can cause life-threatening dysentery
Klebsiella
Proteobacteria;
commonly found in soil or water;
Klebsiella pneumoniae
major cause of septicemia in pediatric wards and is also a cause of one form of pneumonia
septicemia
Proteobacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae is a major cause of ___ in pediatric wards and is also a cause of one form of pneumonia
Serratia marcescens
Proteobacteria;
-is distinguished by its production of red pigment;
-it has been found on catheters and in saline irrigation solutions and thus may be cause of urinary and respiratory tract infections in hospitals
Proteus
Proteobacteria;
-members are actively motile with many flagella;
-member are implicated in infections of the urinary tract, infections of wounds, and in infant diarrhea
Yersinia pestis
Proteobacteria
causes bubonic plague;
-urban rats and ground squirrels are carriers of these organisms;
-fleas usually transmit the organism among animals and to humans
Enterobacter cloacae and Enterobacter aerogenes
Proteobacteria;
-can cause urinary tract infections and hospital acquired infections;
-they are widely distributed in man and animals as well as in water, sewage, and soil
Hemophilus or Haemophilus
Proteobacteria;
-requires blood in the culture media;
-commonly inhabit the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract, mouth, vagina, and intestinal tract
Haemophilus influenzae
Proteobacteria;
is the most common cause of meningitis in young children and is one of the common causes of earaches
deltaproteobacteria
include some bacteria that are predators on other bacteria
Proteobacteria
Bdellovibrio is in phylum
Proteobacteria
Desulfovibrio is in phylum
Proteobacteria
Myxococcus is in phylum
Bdellovibrio
Proteobacteria;
attacks gram - bacteria
Desulfovibrio
Proteobacteria
sulfur-reducing bacteria; can be found in the intestinal tracts of humans and animals
Myxococcus
Proteobacteria;
are motile and enzymatically lyse and digest bacteria they encounter
Epsilonproteobacteria
these bacteria are helical or vibrioid;
gram negative rods
Proteobacteria
Camphylobacter is in phylum
Proteobacteria
Helicobacter is in phylum
Campylobacter fetus
Proteobacteria;
causes abortion in domestic animals
Camplyobacter jejuni
Proteobacteria;
causes food borne intestinal disease
Helicobacter pylori
Proteobacteria;
can survive at low pH; causes peptic ulcers in humans and cause stomach cancer
Nonproteobacteria
some in this phylum are photosynthetic bacteria
Nonproteobacteria
Cyanobacteria is in phylum
Nonproteobacteria
Green sulfur bacteria is in phylum
Nonproteobacteria
Green nonsulfur bacteria are phylum
Cyanobacteria
Nonproteobacteria;
are oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria;
-many are able to fix atmospheric nitrogen in specialized cells called heterocysts
heterocysts
specialized cells of Cyanobacteria phylum Nonproteobacteria;
-contain enzymes that fix nitrogen gas (N2) into ammonium (NH4+) that can be used by the growing cell
Green sulfur bacteria and Green nonsulfur bacteria
Nonproteobacteria;
anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria
Firmicutes
gram positive bacteria with low G+C ration
Firmicutes
Clostridium is in phylum
Clostridium
Firmicutes;
members are obligate anaerobes that produce endospores ;
rod shaped
Clostridium tetani
Firmicutes;
causes tetanus or lockjaw
Clostridium perfringens
Firmicutes;
causes gas gangrene and foodborne diarrhea
Clostridium botulinum
Firmicutes;
causes botulism by producing botulinum toxin
Botulinum toxin
•produced by Clostridium Botulinu, genus Firmicutes;
•releases by lysis;
•neurotoxin - acts at neuromuscular junction;
•attaches to SNARE complex and causes paralysis; muscle tone lacking
Blepharospasm
Botulinum toxin can be used to treat ___
Firmicutes
Bacillus is in phylum
Bacillus
Firmicutes;
members produce endospores
Bacillus anthracis; anthrax
Firmicutes;
causes ___, a disease of cattle, sheep, and horses that can be transmitted to humans
Bacillus thuringiensis
Firmicutes;
is an important isect pathogen that causes paralysis of the insect's gut and the insect ceases to feed and dies
Firmicutes
Staphylococcus is in phylum
Staphylococcus
Firmicutes;
occurs like grapelike clusters
Staphylococcus aureus
Firmicutes;
•produces many toxins that contribute to its pathogenicity;
•causes infection of surgical wounds;
•is the agent that causes Toxic Shock Syndrome;
•produces an enterotoxin that causes vomiting and nausea when ingested (one of the most common types of food poisoning);
•can develop resistance quickly to antibiotics such as penicillin
Firmicutes
Lactobacillus is in phylum
Lactobacillus
Firmicutes;
-produce lactic acid from simple carbohydrates;
-the acidity inhibits competing bacteria;
-located in the vagina, gastrointestinal tract, and oral cavity;
-common industrial uses are in production of:
sauerkraut;
pickles;
buttermilk;
yogurt
Firmicutes
Streptococcus is in phylum
Strepococcus Beta hemolytic species
Firmicutes;
produce an enzyme called hemolysin which lyse Red blood cells forming a clear zone around the colony on blood agar
Streptococcus pyogenes
Firmicutes Group A;
causes disease such as scarlet fever and pharyngitis
Stretococcus agalactiae
Firmicutes Group B;
causes neonatal sepsis
Streptococcus Alpha-hemolytic species
Firmicutes;
form a green color around the colonies in blood agar
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Firmicutes, Streptococcus Alpha-hemolytic species;
-causes pneumococcal pneumonia
Streptococcus mutans
Firmicutes, Streptococcus Alpha-hemolytic species;
-causes dental cavities
Enterococcus
Firmicutes;
inhabit the gastrointestinal tract (human feces), the vagina and oral cavity
Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium
Firmicutes;
responsible for infections of surgical wounds and the urinary tract
Firmicutes
Enterococcus is in phylum
Firmicutes
Listeria is in phylum
Listeria monocytogenes
Firmicutes;
-a pathogen that can contaminate dairy products, like cheese;
-poses a threat of stillbirth or serious damage to the fetus if it infects a pregnant woman
Firmicutes
Mycoplasma is in phylum
Mycoplasma
Firmicutes;
-do not form cell walls;
-have a high sterol content in the plasma membranes;
-are not inhibited by penicillin
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Firmicutes;
causes primary atypical pneumonia (walking pneumonia)
Actinobacteria
Mycobacterium is in phylum
Actinobacteria
Corynebacterium is in genus
Actinobacteria
Gardenerella
Mycobacterium
Actinobacteria;
most pathogenic species are acid-fast
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Actinobacteria;
causes tuberculosis
Mycobacterium leprae
Actinobacteria;
causes leprosy
Corynebacterium diphtheriae
Actinobacteria;
causes diphtheria
Gardnerella vaginalis
Actinobacteria;
causes one of the most common forms of vaginitis
Actinobacteria
high G+C
gram + bacteria
Actinobacteria
Frankia is in phylum
Actinobacteria
Streptomyces is in phylum
Actinobacteria
Actinomyces is in phylum
frankia
Actinobacteria;
causes nitrogen fixing nodules on roots of woody plants (trees and shrubs)
Streptomyces
Actinobacteria;
-one of the bacteria most commonly isolated from the soil;
-gives soil its typical musty odor;
-some species produce most of our commercial antibiotics
Actinomyces israelii; actinomycosis
Actinobacteria;
-causes ___, a tissue destroying disease affecting the head, neck and lungs;
-found in the mouth and throat of humans and animals
Actinobacteria
Nocardia is in phylum
Actinobacteria
Propionibacterium is in phylum
Nocardia
Actinobacteria;
are acid fast organisms;
Nocardia asteroides; nocardiosis; mycetoma
Actinobacteria;
•occasionally causes chronic, difficult-to-treat pulmonary ___ and is also one of the agents of ___, a localized destructive infection of the feet or hands
mycetoma
localized destructive infection of the feet and hands;
- one agent involved in causing this is Nocardia asteroides
Propionibacterium acnes
Actinobacteria;
commonly found on human skin and implicated in acne
Chlamydiae
Chlamydia is in phylum
Chlamydia
Chlamydiae;
-members grow intracellularly inside the host cells;
-transmitted by interpersonal contact or by respiratory routes;
Chlamydia trachomatis
Chlamydiae;
causative agent of :
-trachoma - most common cause of blindness in humans;
-nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) - sexually transmitted venereal disease
trachoma
most common cause of blindness in humans
Chlamydiae
Chlamydophila is in phylum
Chlamydophila psittaci
Chlamydiae;
causes the respiratory disease psittacosis
Chlamydophila pneumoniae
Chlamydiae;
causes a mild form of pneumonia in young adults
Spirochhaetes
found in contaminated water, in sewage, soil, decaying organic matter, and within the bodies of humans and animals;
-helical morphology;
-move by axial filaments
Spirochhaetes
Treponema is in phylum
Spirochhaetes
Borrelia is in phylum
Treponema pallidum
Spirochhaetes;
causes syphilis
Borrelia
Spirochhaetes;
cause Relapsing Fever
Borrelia burgdorferi
Spirochhaetes;
causes Lyme Disease that is transmitted by either ticks or lice
Bacteroidetes
Bacteroides is in phylum
Bacteroidetes
Prevotella is in phylum
Bacteroidetes
Cytophaga is in phylum
Bacteroides
Bacteroidetes;
-live in human intestinal tract;
-also reside in the oral cavity, genital tract, and upper respiratory tract;
-frequent cause of peritonitis, an inflammation resulting from a perforated bowel
Prevotella
Bacteroidetes;
found in the human mouth
Cytophaga
Bacteroidetes;
found in the soil and degrades cellulose and chitin
Fusobacteria
Fusobacterium is in phylum
Fusobacteria
Veillonella is in phylum
Fusobacterium
Fusobacteria;
-are long and slender w/pointed rather than blunt ends;
-in humans, most ofter found in gums and are responsible for dental abscesses (pus)
Veillonella
Fusobacteria;
part of the normal flora of the mouth and are components of dental plaque