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56 terms

D Psych Exam 2

STUDY
PLAY
Four year old Erin is a picky eater. What is a good way for Erin's parents to encourage her to eat a new type of food?
Repeatedly expose her to the new food without any direct pressure to eat it
In industrialized nations, childhood diseases have declined dramatically during the past half century, largely as the result of
widespread immunization of infants and young children
In the United States, _______ are the leading causes of death among children more than 1 year old.
Accidents and Motor Vehicle Collisions
Five year old Chad is participating in Piaget's three-mountain task. When Chad is asked to pick the picture that shows what the display looks like from the doll's perspective, he will most likely select the
Picture that shows his own point of view
Three year old Will brings all of his action figures to preschool for show-and-tell because he does not want any of them to feel lonely if they are left behind at home. Will is demonstrating:
Animistic thinking
Four year old Jasmine is shown two identical tall glasses of water and agrees that they contain the same amount of liquid. When the liquid is poured into a short, wide container, she says that there is more water in the shorter container because it is "all spread out." Jasmine is demonstrating
an inability to conserve / a lack of conservation
According to Vygotsky, a parent engages in _____ When s/he adjusts the support offered to the child during a teaching session to fit the child's current level of performance.
Scaffolding
Information processing focuses on ______ that children use to transform stimuli flowing into their mental systems.
Mental Strategies
Watching educational television programming like Sesame Street is associated with
Higher grades, reading more books, and placing more value on achievement in high school
Inhibiting impulses and shifting attention through ________ Are vital in managing emotions during early childhood
Effortful Control
An important motivator of pro-social behavior is
Empathy
According to social learning theorists, children learn to behave morally
by observing and imitating people who demonstrate appropriate behavior
Marlena teases Jessica by calling her a "dodo head." This is an example of _____ aggression.
Verbal
In Michaela's preschool classroom, the girls spend more time in the housekeeping and art centers, while the boys play with blocks and Legos. This is an example of
Gender Typing
Which of the following is true about the authoritative child-rearing style?
Authoritative parents insist on mature behavior, given reasons for their explanations, and use "teaching moments" to promote the child's self-regulation
_____ commit the vast majority of child abuse incidents
Parents
Inactivity is _____ excessive weight gain in children.
both a cause and consequence of
Which of the following is supported by research on recess?
Elementary school students are more attentive in the classroom after recess than before it
According to Piaget, one limitation of concrete operational thought is that children's mental operations work poorly with
Abstract Ideas
To help herself remembering that she needed cat food and gloves at the store, Cheryl imagined a car wearing gloves. WHich memory strategy did Cheryl use?
Elaboration
In Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence, intelligent behavior involves balancing
analytical, creative, and practical intelligences
Dr. Whittier believes that many IQ tests sample knowledge and skills that not all groups of children have had the opportunity to learn. Dr. Whittier's belief reflects the controversial questions that ethnic differences in IQ have to do with
Test Bias
Carter, an African-American boy, is told by a researcher that certain verbal tasks are "not a test." He is told that other verbal tasks are "a test of how good children are at school problems." If Carter is aware of ethnic stereotyping, which of the following is probable true?
He will perform far worse in the "test" condition
Rochelle is taking a test in which she is asked to come up with as many different ways as possible to make use of a straw. This is most likely a test of
Analytic Intelligence
According to Erikson. the psychological conflict of middle childhood (4th Stage) is :
Industry versus Inferiority
Mr. and Mrs. Rodriquez want to help develop their son's self-esteem. Which of the following would you suggest?
Encourage him to strive for worthwhile goals because his eventual achievement will foster his self-esteem
Danielle saw a man carrying a sign that said "I'm hungry." She took the man's perspective, imagined how he felt, and asked her mom if she could give her allowance to the man so that he could buy some food. Danielle has developed
Empathy
When Erica's best friend makes her angry, she takes a deep breath and counts to ten. Erica is using
Emotion-Centered Coping
On a measure of peer acceptance, Dustin was rarely mentioned either positively or negatively. Dustin would be considered a _____ child
Neglected
Dwayne feels that his parents and peers disapprove of his knitting hobby. His parents have tried to encourage him to consider other hobbies, such as woodworking or coin collecting. Dwayne is distressed and stops knitting. Which of the following accurately describes Dwayne's gender identity self-evaluation?
Felt pressure to conform to gender roles
Research on the long-term consequences of divorce indicates that
most children chow improved adjustments by two years after divorce
Research on child sexual abuse indicates that
the abuser is most often a parent or someone the parent knows well / the abuser is most often a male
Fourteen-year-old Philip experiences muscle and body growth and notices the growth of facial and body hair. Which of the following hormones is responsible for this change?
Testosterone
Ann is having more frequent disagreements with her teenage daughter. If they argue over typical parent-adolescent issues, these disagreements are most likely
about everyday matters, such as driving, dating partners, and curfew
_____ Is a tragic eating disturbance in which young people starve themselves because of compulsive fear of getting fat
Anorexia Nervosa
According to Piaget, around age 11, young people enter the formal operational stage of development, in which they
are able to come up with new, general logical rules through internal reflections
Fezzik wakes up one morning to find a pimple on his nose, he begs his mother to let him stay home from school, since everyone would be staring at him and his pimple. Fezzik's belief that he is the focus of everyone's attention is experiencing
the imaginary audience
Fifteen-year-old Luna is able to evaluate the logical of verbal statements without referring to real-world circumstances. According to Piaget, Luna is demonstrating
Propositional Thought
His school extracurricular activities that focus on the arts, community services, and vocational development
improve academic performance, self-esteem, and initiative
Adolescent drug experimentation
should not be taken lightly because drug use can lead to permanent injury or death
Studies show that 60 percent of middle school students and 90 percent of high school students are aware of the basic facts about AIDS, however...
are poorly informed about how to protect themselves against other STDs.
According to Erikson, the major personality achievement of adolescence (stage 5) is development of
Identity
Lily's parents are concerned about how her level of self-esteem will change during adolescence. You can tell them that for most young people, it
rises
Lauren plans to major in engineering in college. When asked if she might change her career path, she responds, "I might, but I doubt it. I've spent a lot of time studying my options. I'm pretty sure engineering is right for me." Lauren is demonstrating identity
Achievement
Which of the following is true about bicultural identity?
Biculturally identified adolescents tend to have especially favorable relations with members of other ethnic groups.
Throughout adolescence, _____ is the single most consistent predictor of mental health.
the quality of parent-child relationship
Self-disclosure to _____ declines in early adolescence
parents
Teenage boys' discussions tend to involve more _____ than girls' conversations.
Competition and Conflict
The most common psychological problem of adolescence is
Depression
Mr. Swan is concerned about his 16-year-old daughter, who has been exchanging text messages with one particular boy. You should tell him that
close romantic ties promotes sensitivity, self-esteem, and identity development
Seven-year-old Chad is participating in Piaget's three-mountain task. When Chad is asked to pick the picture that shows what the display looks like from the doll's perspective, he will most likely select the
correct picture and be able to explain why he chose that picture
Marlena teases Jessica by gossiping to all of her friends that she is a "dodo head." This is an example of _____ aggression.
relational
Kristin is asked to take a test looking at _____. On her test she is asked to come up with as many ways as possible of using a hammer.
divergent thinking.
Mr. and Mrs. Roe want to develop their son's self-esteem. Which of the following would help?
Encourage him to strive for worthwhile goals because his eventual achievement will foster his self-esteem.
Lauren plans to major in engineering in college. When asked if she might change her career path, she responds, " No I won't. My parents have wanted me to become an engineer since I was very young, and they have sacrificed a lot to make sure that I go to college to become one." Lauren is demonstrating what Marcia would call identity _____.
foreclosure
Teenage girls' discussion tend to involve more _____ than boy's conversations.
self-disclosure