95 terms

ANT3520 Test 1

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Attended
When the decedent was under the care of an allopathic or osteopathic physician, and the death was either expected or anticipated based on medical history. Ex) Patient diagnosed w/ terminal cancer.
Unattended
Unexpected death. Ex) Traumatic injury, car accidents, homicides, sudden illness.
Cause
An anatomical diagnosis of the precise mechanism of death. Ex) motor-vehicle accident may result from massive hemorrhage secondary to laceration of the aorta due to rapid deceleration.
Manner
Falls into four categories: natural, homicide, suicide, and accidental. Ex) the manner could be the accident , a suicide (if the accident was intentional), or homicide (if the accident was purposely caused by another driver or through neglect or improper operation of a vehicle--e.g., manslaughter).
Autopsy
"too see oneself" careful dissection and examination of the organs and tissues of the body.
Anthropos
man + ology (to speak of, or study of.)
Scientific Method
Anthroplogy is a science, and therefore uses as its basic tool; testable explanations for phenomena that are observed in nature, and seek to find correlations and causations that explain observed phenomena.
Culture
religion, ritual, economics, political systems, language and others. Components of human society transmitted by this.
Ethnography
The descriptive study of a particular society {Socio-cultural anthropology).
Linguistic Anthropology
Systematic study of human language and communication, with particular focus on the interaction of language and culture.
Archaeology
(Study of ancient things) is the study of past human life and culture through the examination of material culture - objects left behind by groups that (in most cases) left no written record of their societies.
Enclosed Scenes
Houses, railroad cars, dumpsters, or any scene in which the body is confined to a known area.
Open Scenes
Bodies have been left on the surface of the ground--often scattered or buried in graves; clandestine graves.
Corpus Delicti
the primary evidence that a crime has been committed.
Noninvasive Search Methods
Satellite or aerial imaging, remote geophysical imaging, detection, line, and grid searches, and cadaver dogs.
Invasive Search Methods
Irreversibly alter the crime scene and have the potential to damage evidence.
Line Search
Few to several people slowly advancing forward in a line.
Grid Search
An extension of a line search, but instead of a single pass, the group then searches the same area--but this time moving a line perpendicular to the first pass.
Circular Search
May be used for finding and mapping skeletal remains that are found underwater.
In Situ
Once remains are found on the surface, investigators flag each element of evidence
Forensic Archaeology
Adaptation of standard archaeological theory and procedures to crime scenes involving buried bodies or skeletal remains.
Ground-Penetrating Radar
Noninvasive method, uses radio transponder and receiver to send radio waves into the ground and record returning echoes from anomalies beneath the surface.
Magnetometry
Remote sensing tool, locates changes in the magnetic field due to metallic objects. Not intended to find bodies, but guns, knives, belt buckles, or other metallic objects.
Infrared Photography
Infrared cameras use the infrared spectrum of light to detect heat.
Cadaver Dogs
Specially trained dogs to detect the scent of byproducts of decomposition.
Forensic Archaeology
The application and adaptation of traditional archaeological methods to meet the needs and requirements of crime scenes.
Case logbook
records all laboratory cases: ME's cross-referencing, type of remains, remains identified, and place or agency or origin.
Processing log
Laboratory technician, manager, or director uses this to indicate what procedures are needed for that specific case.
Maceration
If the remains are not completely skeletonized, they are processed by removing any soft tissue by primarily immersing the skeleton into boiling or simmering water.
Taphonomy
From the Greek word taphos, for burial, and nomos, for law, and literally translates into "the laws of burial." How the fossil is formed.
Postmortem interval (PMI)
Time since death.
Rigor Mortis
The amount of muscle stiffness in a body after the time of death.
Livor Mortis
The settling of blood in the body. Helps finding the position of the body at the time of death.
Algor Mortis
The cooling of the body temperature after the time of death.
Synovial Joints
Weakest joints; most common found in the body.
Disarticulate
come apart (Synovial joints do this)
Cartilaginous Joints
Joints of intermediate strength. ex) articulations of the vertebrae
Fibrous Joints
Strongest joints in the human body and one of the last ones to decompose.
Animal Predation
Canivore and rodent modification.
Carnivore Modification
Feed on carion. Dogs and coyotes are most frequent.
Rodent Modification
These do not begin to modify the body until the majority of the soft tissue has decomposed or been removed.
Striae
Left on the bone from the rodents' unique incisors.
Human Scatter
Dispersal of remains unintentionally or intentionally.
Unintentional
Can occur in situations where a body has been deposited in a particular location, unbeknownst to the person scattering the remains. ex) In a farmer plot and remains are undiscovered during farming operations.
Intentional
Dismemberment act of cutting up or dissecting the body in order to facilitate transport of the remains.
Weathering
Appearance of bone can change dramatically with exposure to natural processes such as rain, heat, humidity, cold, etc.
Delamination
When the outer layer of the cortical bone begins to peel away from the underlying layers.
Sun Bleaching
Bone exposed to the sun for a while and takes on a white appearance.
Soil Staining
Occurs when the bone has been in direct contact with soil. The color of the soil affects the color of the bone.
Root-etching marks
Acid-secreted by roots will literally etch into the surface of the bone leaving this on the bone.
Fluvial Transport
Movement of human remains deposited in the water, such as a river or creek, display indicators of typical of this aqueous habitat.
Heat and Fire Damage
May not change color of bone, but will change its shape.
Calcined
Once organic component is removed and the inorganic component remains, the bone is often referred to as this, refers to stage of whitish-gray coloration.
Warping
Where the bone shape changes from its original architecture.
Poerimortem
occurred at time of death.
Postmortem Trauma
Long after time of death.
Sagittal Plane
Passed through the midline of the body, dividing it into equal left and right halves.
Para-sagittal
Any planar slice in this direction that is not midline is called this.
Coronal Plane
divides the skeleton into equal anterior and posterior sections.
Transverse Plane
Cuts the body into upper and lower sections.
Frankfort Horizontal Plane
A position that aligns the lower border of the left eye orbit (orbitale) with the superior aspect of the external ear openings (porion).
Superior/cranial
Toward the top.
Inferior/caudal
toward the bottom.
Medial
Toward the midline.
Lateral
Away from the midline.
Anterior/ventral
toward the front.
Posterior/dorsal
toward the back.
Proximal
nearest the trunk.
Distal
Farthest from the trunk.
Intramembranous or endochondral
Bones classified by the way they develop.
Long bones, flat bones, irregular
Their shape.
Cranial or postcranial
Whether they comprise part of the skull or body.
Axial
Elements that lie along they axis of the body.
Appendicular
Constitute part of the limbs.
Atlas
The first cervical vertebra names after the Greek god of heavy burdens who holds the world upon his shoulders. The first cervical vertebra supports our head.
Axis
The second cervical vertebra
True ribs
Top 6 or 7 ribs that each have their own costal cartilage.
Costal Ribs
Remaining ribs that share costal cartilage.
Floating ribs
The bottom two sets of ribs are known as this since they do not articulate with the transverse process of the thoracic vertebra and do not extend to the sternum.
Sternum or breastbone
Consists of three elements: the manubrium, the body, and the xiphoid process. This consists of fused sternebrae in the adult.
The shoulder girdle
Comprised of the clavicle and the scapula. Articulates with the manubrium of the sternum medially.
Scapula
Or shoulder blade, is a large, flat, triangular bone lying on the posterior aspect of the thorax.
Diaphysis
Shaft of the bone. Long bones are endochondral bones, that is, they ossify within a cartilaginous matrix.
Metaphysis
The end of the diaphysis.
Physis
Bone growth takes place along a growth plate situated at the ends of the metaphyses.
Carpals
The eight bones of the wrist are called this.
Metacarpals
The five bones of the palm are called this.
Phalanges
Each finger has three bones called this, with the exception of the thumb, which has been reduced through evolution to allow it to oppose the other fingers and permit brachiation.
Tarsals
Seven bones of the foot irregularly shaped and, like the carpals in the wrist, shares multiple articular surfaces w/ neighboring bones.
Metatarsals
Each foot has five of these, representing five digital rays.
Hallux
Large toe that only has a proximal and distal phalange.
Osteometry
The study and measurement of the human skeleton, used to compare and contrast the morphology and size of different populations, calculate stature, determine sex and ancestry, and in general, quantify whatever aspect of the skeleton that is being investigated.
Convention
Scientists have mutually agreed upon standards points and techniques so that the data are comparable between researchers.
Bregma
The osteometric point where the sagittal and coronal sutures meet.
Euryon
Osteometric point that can be determined only by finding that point on the parietal bones that represent the widest point of the cranial vault.