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102 terms

Human Phys 5

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Diaphysis
the main (mid) section of a long bone
Epiphysis
the end of a long bone
Articular Cartilage
thin hyaline cartilage layer that covers epiphyses of bones in synovial joints
Medullary Cavity
cavity within the shaft of the long bones filled with bone marrow
Arteries
blood vessels that carry blood away from heart
Bone Markings
reveals the attachments of muscles, ligaments, tendons and where blood vessels and nerves passed
Osteon
basic unit of compact bone
Lacunae
Small cavities in the bone or cartilage that hold individual bones or cartilage cells.
Central Canal
The hollow center of an osteon, also known as a Haversian canal. The central canal contains blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves. Bone is laid down around the central canal in concentric rings called lamellae.
Hyaline Cartilage
translucent cartilage that is common in joints and the respiratory passages
Yellow Marrow
bone marrow that is yellow with fat
Red Marrow
bone marrow of children and some adult bones that is required for the formation of red blood cells
Epiphyseal Plate
Growth plate, made of cartilage, gradually ossifies
Epiphyseal Line
remnant of the epiphyseal plate, thin line of bony tissue expanding the epiphyses
Osteoclasts
large cells that resorb or break down bone matrix, releasing calcium ions into the blood
Osteoblasts
bone forming cells
Osteocytes
mature bone cells
Axial skeleton
the part of the skeleton that includes the skull and spinal column and sternum and ribs
Appendicular skeleton
the part of the skeleton that includes the pectoral girdle and the pelvic girdle and the upper and lower limbs
cranium
the part of the skull that encloses the brain
frontal
of or adjacent to the forehead or frontal bone
paired parietal
bone on the cranium
paired temporal
bones on side of head that ears are attached too
occipital
back of head
foraman magnum
large opening in the occipita bone at the base of the skull connecting to the vertebral canal
sphenoid
butterfly-shaped bone at the base of the skull
pituitary
the master gland of the endocrine system
facial bones
Bones that make up the face that dont surround the cranial cavtiy
maxilla
the upper jawbone in vertebrates
mandible
the lower jawbone in vertebrates
palatine
either of two irregularly shaped bones that form the back of the hard palate and helps to form the nasal cavity and the floor of the orbits
zygomatic
cheek bones
lacrimal
eye sockets
nasal
an elongated rectangular bone that forms the bridge of the nose
vomer
thin trapezoidal bone of the skull forming the posterior and inferior parts of the nasal septum
sinus
any of various air-filled cavities especially in the bones of the skull
hyloid
the tongue is attached to this bone
fontanelle
any membranous gap between the bones of the cranium in an infant or fetus
vertebra column
all of the bones of the spine
atlas
the 1st cervical vertebra
axis
the 2nd cervical vertebra
cervical vertebra
one of 7 vertebrae in the human spine located in the neck region
Thoracic vertebra
one of 12 vertebrae in the human vertebral column
Lumbar vertebra
one of 5 vertebrae in the human vertebral column
sacrum
wedge-shaped bone consisting of five fused vertebrae forming the posterior part of the pelvis
coccyx
the end of the vertebral column in humans and tailless apes
scoliosis
an abnormal lateral curve to the vertebral column
kyphosis
an abnormal backward curve to the vertebral column
lordosis
an abnormal inward (forward) curvature of the vertebral column
bony thorax
Composed of thoracic vertebrae dorsally, ribs laterally, sternum & costal cartilages anteriorly
sternum
the flat bone that articulates with the clavicles and the first seven pairs of ribs
manubrium
the upper part of the breastbone
true ribs
Ribs 1-7
false ribs
8-12
floating ribs
11-12
costal cartilages
connect ribs to sternum
intercostal muscles
Muscles located in between the ribs that play a role in ventilation.
pectoral girdle
a skeletal support to which the forelimbs of vertebrates are attached
clavical
collar bone
scapula
either of two flat triangular bones one on each side of the shoulder in human beings
humerus
bone extending from the shoulder to the elbow
radius
bone on top when looking in anatomical position
ulna
the inner and longer of the two bones of the human forearm
carpals
Wrist Bones
metacarples
bone of the palm
phalanges
Fingers and Toes
femur
the longest and thickest bone of the human skeleton
tibia
the inner and thicker of the two bones of the human leg between the knee and ankle
fibula
the outer and thinner of the two bones of the human leg between the knee and ankle
calcaneous
Heel bone
tarsals
Ankle Bones
metatarsals
Foot Bones
pelvic girdle
the structure of the vertebrate skeleton supporting the lower limbs in humans and the hind limbs or corresponding parts in other vertebrates
ossa coxae
hip bones; form through the fusion of the ileum, ischium, pubis; complete fusion occurs by age 25
ilium
the upper and widest of the three bones making up the hipbone
ischium
one of the three sections of the hipbone
pubic
relating or near the pubis
pubic synthesis
cartilage at front of pelvic
Long Bone
in vertebrate animals: a long cylindrical marrow-containing bone of a limb
Short Bone
a bone that is of approximately equal dimension in all directions. Ex carpals and tarsals
Flat Bone
sternum, scapula, ribs and skull
Irregular bone
complex shaped bone
Fibrous Joints
Fibrous tissues connect bone to bone
Cartilaginous Joints
Have no joint cavity, Bones held together by cartilage. Examples are growth plates, disks between vertebrae and the pelvic symphysis
Synovial Joint
a joint so articulated as to move freely
Hinge Joint
a joint allowing movement in one plane only
Pivotal Joint
allow bones to move side to side and up and down
Ball And Socket Joint
diarthrosis joint that allows a rotation movement (shoulder)
Osteoarthritis
chronic breakdown of cartilage in the joints
Rheumatoid Arthritis
a chronic autoimmune disease with inflammation of the joints and marked deformities
Gout
a painful inflammation of the big toe and foot caused by defects in uric acid metabolism resulting in deposits of the acid and its salts in the blood and joints
Rickets
childhood disease caused by deficiency of vitamin D and sunlight associated with impaired metabolism of calcium and phosphorus
Greenstick fracture
fracture in children
comminuted fracture
bone fragments into several pieces
closed reduction
nonsurgical realignment of broken bone ends and splitting
compression fracture
a fracture where the bone is crushed
compound fracture
a fracture in which the bone ends penetrate through the skin surface
depressed fracture
fracture in the skull
open reduction
surgical realignment of broken bone ends
simple fracture
bone is broken clearly, the ends do not penetrate the skin
spiral fracture
a result of twisting forces
four stages of bone reformation
hematoma, fibrocartilage, bony cartilage, remodeling