an adviser to Louis XIII and because of him, France develops and absolute monarchy
catherine the great
she was the one who got the warm water port, also freed the nobles from serving in the government, took part of Poland, and she defeated the Ottoman Turks.
edict of nantes
said that French Protestants could worship in places where they were a majority; guaranteed religious freedom for French Protestants
Absolute monarch of France who was also known as "The sun king"; he built the palace at Versailles; he is also the longest reigning monarch in European history
thirty years war
the Hapsburgs wanting to unify the German states (long range)(Immediate)- Ferdinand enforcing Catholicism on the Czech Protestants
war of Austrian succession
Prussia v. Austria beginning with Fredrick the great taking Silesia from Maria Theresa (violation of the pragmatic sanction); the war ends with Frederick keeping Silesia
war of spanish succession
Louis XIV wanted his grandson, Philip, to be king of Spain; they rest of Europe was against it because that would mean one day, France and Spain would be joined together; LOUIS XIV DID NOT GET WHAT HE WANTED; Philip can be king of Spain but never king of France
was a document that Maria Theresa's father had other rulers sign to say that they would not take any Hapsburg land
is the Hapsburg ruler of Austria because of the pragmatic sanction, guaranteed her right to take the throne when her father died.
time of troubles
in Russia, they don't have a strong ruler, they have the civil war, peasants fighting, and invasions.
treaty of westphalia
ends thirty years war, says Hapsburg will not be able to unify ended thirty years war, furthered rise of France, weakened Germany by ending the Hapsburg dream of ruling a unified empire
balance of power
no single country dominants Europe all equal in terms of power, refers to the system in which each nation keep peace and order by maintaining power that is equal to or balanced to rivals
He was the ruler of Russia who moved the capital to St. Petersburg and adopted many reforms to modernize Russia.
sent to invade England, the defeat of the Spanish armada is the beginning of Spain's decline and begins England's rise