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holy synod

a council created by Peter the Great which gave him control of the church

frederick williams I

ruler of Prussia; he increased the size and strength of the army

cardinal richelieu

an adviser to Louis XIII and because of him, France develops and absolute monarchy

catherine the great

she was the one who got the warm water port, also freed the nobles from serving in the government, took part of Poland, and she defeated the Ottoman Turks.

edict of nantes

said that French Protestants could worship in places where they were a majority; guaranteed religious freedom for French Protestants

louis xiv

Absolute monarch of France who was also known as "The sun king"; he built the palace at Versailles; he is also the longest reigning monarch in European history

thirty years war

the Hapsburgs wanting to unify the German states (long range)(Immediate)- Ferdinand enforcing Catholicism on the Czech Protestants

war of Austrian succession

Prussia v. Austria beginning with Fredrick the great taking Silesia from Maria Theresa (violation of the pragmatic sanction); the war ends with Frederick keeping Silesia

war of spanish succession

Louis XIV wanted his grandson, Philip, to be king of Spain; they rest of Europe was against it because that would mean one day, France and Spain would be joined together; LOUIS XIV DID NOT GET WHAT HE WANTED; Philip can be king of Spain but never king of France

pragmatic sanction

was a document that Maria Theresa's father had other rulers sign to say that they would not take any Hapsburg land

maria theresa

is the Hapsburg ruler of Austria because of the pragmatic sanction, guaranteed her right to take the throne when her father died.

divine right

a ruler's power comes from God

time of troubles

in Russia, they don't have a strong ruler, they have the civil war, peasants fighting, and invasions.

philip ii

absolute monarch from Spain who made Castile the center of Spain

dutch revolt

causes- economic and religious differences with Spain


a palace built by Louis XIV (France)

treaty of westphalia

ends thirty years war, says Hapsburg will not be able to unify ended thirty years war, furthered rise of France, weakened Germany by ending the Hapsburg dream of ruling a unified empire

balance of power

no single country dominants Europe all equal in terms of power, refers to the system in which each nation keep peace and order by maintaining power that is equal to or balanced to rivals

peter i

He was the ruler of Russia who moved the capital to St. Petersburg and adopted many reforms to modernize Russia.

battle of lepanto

naval battle where the Spanish defeated the Ottoman Turks

spanish armada

sent to invade England, the defeat of the Spanish armada is the beginning of Spain's decline and begins England's rise


lesser nobles, merchants, lawyers, clergy


small farmers


Russian nobles


government officials, responsible for overseeing local areas

treaty of utrecht

Philip could be king of Spain but never king of France

king vii

first tudor monarch king in 1485

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