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National 5 History - Changing Britain (1760 - 1900)
Terms in this set (150)
A time when society changed from farming to manufacturing
The huge change in manufacturing that started around 1760
Reasons for population growth
- The 1840s Irish famine led to large-scale emigration from Ireland to Britain
- Developments in medicine reduced the death rate
- People got married younger and had larger families
- More children survived infancy
- Better housing and improved sanitation helped to reduce deaths from infectious diseases
- The Agricultural Revolution gave people affordable food, which meant they lived longer
How the population is spread out across the country
An area that becomes emptier as people move away from an area
Reasons why some people moved to the towns
Work, entertainment, the chance to start a new life or to find a husband or wife
Very poor-quality housing that was overcrowded and lacked fresh water or toilets
The Nuisance Removal Act of 1855
A law created in Scotland that allowed the police to clean or close properties that were a threat to the health of the public
The Public Health Act of 1875
A law that gave town councils the ability to provide water supplies and sewers
The Artisans' and Labourers' Dwelling Improvement Act
Allowed councils to demolish old slum houses
What was the effect of allowing councils to close or demolish houses?
Many people became homeless as there was nowhere for them to live
Gas likely to cause illness or disease
Why did the death rate stay high between 1760 and 1900?
People had poor diets, worked in dangerous environments, lived in horrible conditions, medical knowledge was limited at the time and diseases spread quickly in overcrowded cities, due to bad sanitation
The way of getting fresh, clean water into a house and getting rid of dirty water and human waste
What problems did bad sanitation cause?
It produced a very bad smell, the cesspits overflowed into local rivers or streams, contaminating drinking water, roads were filled with horse manure and waste products were dumped into the river, polluting the rivers and killing of wildlife
Common diseases between 1760 and 1900
Typhus, influenza, scarlet fever, tuberculosis, smallpox and cholera
A deadly disease spread by lice that lived on clothing or in bedding that made people develop a contagious fever
The flu was very common and caused frequent epidemics
Affected the very young or the very old, so many families lost all of their children to the disease
A disease spread by coughing and sneezing
A highly contagious disease that was transmitted through direct physical contact
Victims had severe vomiting and diarrhoea, which meant that they frequently died from dehydration and it was caused by contaminated water
Doctor John Snow
A doctor that made the link between drinking water polluted by human waste and outbreaks of cholera
The 1831 Board of Health
A group set up by the government to look for ways to solve the problem of cholera
Where the Boards of Health successful?
No, because the boards had no power to make people clean up their properties or force people to stay quaratined
An early pioneer in public health that published a report stating that disease was not caused by the poor but by filth and dirt, that overcrowding was why disease spread so quickly and that the lack of clean drinking water was a likely cause of disease
Public Health Act of 1848
Boards of Health were given new powers to enforce laws to make all new homes have proper drains and lavatories, to make house owners link their drains to the main sewers, to make landlords provide clean water for their tenants and to make sure rubbish bin collections were organised
How successful was the Public Health Act of 1848?
It was successful, as many cities reduced their death rates drastically and built new sewers, improved their water supplies and employed health inspectors, but many people became unhappy about paying local taxes needed to cover costs, private landlords resented the local authorities telling them what to do with their properties, the wealthier people objected to paying for improvements and many of the new sewers drained the waste into local rivers and streams, which contaminated the water again
The Sanitary Act of 1866
An act that gave councils the power to force landowners and builders to connect new houses to sewers, even if the owners objected and the power to order landlords of a slum property to improve conditions or to demolish a house if it was dangerous to public health
The 1875 Public Health Act
An act that brought all the main points of the previous laws together so there was just one act and enforced the rule that all towns and parishes had to have a Board of Health
The Public Health (Scotland) Act of 1867
Allowed local authorities to appoint medical officers of health and allowed them to charge a general rate of tax on householders for public health purposes
The Local Government (Scotland) Act of 1889
County councils had to appoint medical officers of health in order to control and check the provision of health improvements in the country
A French scientist that proved that germs caused disease and not the other way round
A German scientist that discovered the causes of deadly diseases such as anthrax and tuberculosis and who discovered (like John Snow) that cholera was spread through contaminated drinking water
What was public health like in 1900?
It had greatly improved, as better housing and clean water was available, sanitation had improved, people had better diets and medical knowledge had advanced
Different types of cloth
The domestic system
Before 1760, most cloth was made in people's own homes using hand looms or spinning wheels
Why did the domestic system end?
Because cloth production was slow and could not supply enough cloth or produce consistently good quality goods
Flowing water turned a large wheel that was connected to anything that needed to be turned
A powered shuttle that made it possible for weavers to make cloth up to four times wider than before
A machine that fed thread into eight wooden spindles at the same time, which produced thread eight times more quickly than doing it by hand
A machine that could drive multiple spindles at once that produced yarn of a much better quality than the spinning jenny could produce that was powered by a water wheel and had been invented by Richard Arkwright
Combined the elements of the spinning jenny and the water frame that could automatically turn 1200 spindles at once by 1830
Improved by James Watt to make it capable of turning wheels, that made the Industrial Revolution in textiles take off
A machine that could produce four times as much cloth as a weaver and that was operated by steam, which meant it could run for the whole day
What were conditions like in factories?
More women and children were employed as the need for skilled workers disappeared and they had to work extremely hard, sometimes for twelve hours at a time, waking up in the early hours of the morning, factories were very dangerous as the machines had exposed moving parts, which meant there were lots of accidents, workers could get their hair or fingers trapped in the machinery, overseers were brutal and would beat the children for not working fast enough, the factories were poorly ventilated, which meant they were hot and the air was filled with dust, workers only had Sundays off and they could not sing or whistle while they worked
Four large mills built near Lanark that employed over two thousand people
The manager of New Lanark in 1800, who believed that if employees were well treated, they would respond by being good workers, who reduced the length of the working day and stopped physically punishing workers
A cube that had four sides that were painted in a different colour, which could be turned to a colour that represented a workers quality of work, which encouraged workers to work harder or faster if the cube was turned to blue or black
Why is Owen still important today?
He started one of the first cooperative shops, where workers could get quality food at reasonable prices, he ensured the houses and streets at the mill were clean and safe by employing a committee to inspect houses and to make sure people were living by the rules he had had set, he treated the children working for him very well, he built two buildings to school the workers at New Lanark and he proved that commercial success could be achieved without exploiting workers
Factory Act of 1802
A law that reduced working hours, but that was ignored by many factory owners, as there were no inspectors to check that they were complying
Factory Act of 1819
A law that tried to stop children under nine working in mills and limit working hours for children, but not all mill owners obeyed because of the lack of inspectors
An MP and religious man who was responsible for getting MPs to agree to investigating working conditions in factories
Factory Act of 1833
An act that made it illegal for children under the age of nine to be employed in factories, limited working hours for teenagers and that introduced inspectors that ensured the laws were being followed
Was the Factory Act of 1833 successful?
Yes, as younger children were protected fro, being exploited, it reduced the workload of older children and introduced the inspectors but they did not have power to enforce these laws, children sometimes we're not registered at birth so it was hard to find out their real age and the parents of the child workers did not like the act as they thought the government shouldn't interfere in their lives and so they helped the mill owners to fool the inspectors
Factory Act of 1844
An act that made machinery safer and reduced working hours
Factory Act of 1847
Also known as the Ten Hours Act, it restricted the working hours of women and children in British factories to ten hours a day
Were conditions better for factory workers in 1900?
Yes, as hours were shorter and there was more protection from accidents, but employees still worked long hours, received poor pay, had to be around dangerous machines and conditions depended on how much the factory owner wanted to help the workers
When was coal first mined?
1291, when monks opened a bell pit mine
A layer of underground coal that miners cut into
A vertical shaft dug into the ground that miners were lowered into by a rope or climbing a ladder, which were very dangerous as water collected at the bottom of the mines and the roofs were unstable
A slightly more successful and safer version of mining than bell pits, they were tunnels cut into the side of hills where coal was found, but they were also dangerous as the lower you went, the harder it would get to breathe
Why did mines get bigger and deeper after 1769?
To power mills and factories, for gas lighting, for transportation, for raw materials used in chemicals and dyes and for smelting
What were conditions like in coal mines?
Work was dangerous, miners worked in cramped conditions, women and girls had to carry or drag heavy baskets of coal to the surface, which was exhausting work and some of the workers were children as young as five or six
Men and older boys who cut the coal from the seam of rock
Women and older girls who carried or dragged baskets of coal to the surface, which was backbreaking work
Young children who filled tubs and baskets with coal and then pushed or dragged them to the bearers
Very young children who opened and shut ventilation doors when carts passed
What dangers did miners face?
Children who worked long hours in the mines could often become deformed, miners could fall to their deaths while being lowered into the pits on ropes, miners could drown if a pit flooded, miners could develop conditions such as black lung, which destroyed their lungs and was caused by breathing in coal dust, roof falls could trap or kill miners and poisonous gases could cause suffocation of explode, killing miners
Drained water from the mines
Winding engines with wire cages and cables
Reduced the risk when miners were lowered into and raised from the pit
Lessened the risk of cave-ins
Pushed fresh air around the mine
The Davy lamp
Reduced the risk of explosions by preventing naked flames coming into contact with explosive gases
Set up by the government in 1840 to investigate conditions in coal mines, which showed the horrible conditions that young children and women had to cope with in the mines
1842 Mines Act
A law that stated that no women should work underground, that children under ten were not allowed to work underground, that no one under fifteen was to be in charge of moving machinery and that ponies had to be used to drag coal underground
How successful was the 1842 Mines Act?
It was a big step forward, but it was limited, as there was only one inspector employed by the government to enforce the law in mines for all of Britain, who was not allowed to go underground, it didn't stop mine owners employing children and women to do dangerous and heavy work above ground and the act didn't help to reduce the hours for working men
1850 Coal Mines Inspection Act
An act that gave new inspectors that had been hired the power to insist to go underground, even if the mine owner had forbidden it, the power to write reports on the conditions in the mines and the power to enforce rules from the 1842 Mines Act and mine owners had to report all deaths in the mines
Did the 1850 Act change anything?
Mine owners could be prosecuted in court after the introduction of the act, but very few were taken to court, so many got away with treating their workers badly
1855 Mines Act
Stated that each mine now had to have its own set of safety rules that had to be approved by the government
1860 Mines Regulation and Inspection Act
Introduced more safety rules for the new technology that was introduced in mines, increased the number of mine inspectors and increased the the age of boys that were allowed to work underground to 12
1862 Mines Act
Made single mine shafts illegal and made it compulsory for mines to have two exits, which improved ventilation and lessened the risk of miners being trapped underground
1872 Coal Mines Regulating Act
Made it compulsory for mine owners to have a certificate of competency, which was awarded to owners who passed a national exam and made fans compulsory, stated that pit props had to be made of strong timber or steel, that all mines had to use safety lamps, that winches had to be fitted with improved winding gears and that miners had the opportunity to appoint their own inspectors
How successful were the new acts?
Mine owners did not want to spend large amounts of money on improvements, so it was limited, but it prevented young children from being exploited underground, prevented boys and women from working underground and set new hours for male miners
Why did transport have to improve in Britain?
Travel was slow between cities, it was difficult to transport large amounts of coal and iron, fragile things often got damaged on bumpy roads, the roads were not suitable and it was easier to transport things by boat, but not all industrial areas were near to the coast or rivers
Opened in 1761, it was the first modern canal in Britain and it was used to carry coal from the Duke of Bridgewater's mines to the industrial city of Manchester
What problems were there in building canals?
They were difficult to build, as canals had to be kept level or a series of locks had to be built if hilly land was to be crossed and aqueducts sometimes had to be built to keep canals level over valleys, they were expensive as not everyone wanted to sell their land to canal companies, and those that did charged a high price for it and compensation had to be given to wagon and packhorse owners for the loss of their livelihoods and they needed a constant supply of water that had to be kept at the right level
Labourers that built canals, who came from the Highlands and Ireland, who lived in very poor conditions, were low paid and were treated harshly by the foremen
Why were canals so popular?
They provided a better system of transport, they allowed British industry to develop, they reduced the costs of transporting coal and other goods, they could transport fragile goods and they helped the British economy as thousands of workers were employed
When investors rushed to pour money into building canals and when everybody wanted to become rich by getting a share in the profits from a canal
Why did canals become less important?
Canals were slow and so began to look out of date when railways were invented, canals began to look shabby due to a lack of maintenance, so people lost confidence in them and in the summer they dried out and in the winter they froze over
Why did Britain need railways?
A faster, more reliable mode of transport was needed
A railway in 1800
Horses were used to pull wagons along railway tracks
How did steam-powered railways start?
Steam engines had been invented in the 1700s and by 1800, people knew that steam engines could be used to turn wheels, but a father and son invented the first locomotive
A steam engine that moves under its own power
Stockton to Darlington route
This route opened in 1825
Liverpool to Manchester route
This railway was built as canal owners charged expensive tolls to use waterways in the area, so it was decided that they would build a railway in 1824, which took five years to complete and was a great success
In the 1830s and 1840s, a network of railways crisscrossed the country and people got rich quickly investing money in new lines, so their was a craze for building railways
How hard was it for navvies working on railways?
They lived in rough camps not far from where they were working, ate poor quality food, which caused scurvy, they had to spend large amounts of their wages on buying tools, clothes and food, which was very pricey, so they could not keep much of their wages and navvies had to work as long as their physical strength allowed it, well into their sixties
Was navvy work dangerous?
Many of them died whilst working on the railways
Why were some people opposed to railways?
Landowners and farmers complained that the countryside would be spoilt, some doctors claimed that travelling at high speeds would damage the health of passengers, canal and toll roads companies were forced out of business and the rich who owned large estates objected to ordinary people being brought into the country
How did railways change Britain?
Thousands of jobs were produced, it boosted industries such as iron, glass and coal industries, fresh produce like fish could be transported quickly before it went off, local manufacturers could sell their goods nationally, it led to towns growing in size, it meant commuters could move to the suburbs, quick and cheap travel was available, information and news was available to everyone, people could keep in touch with whoever they wanted, messages could be sent using Morse Code, which allowed for instant communication, tourism developed and people could escape the city to go to seaside resorts, people could travel for fishing, shooting and golf, football fans could travel to see their team play in other towns, political news could be spread faster and Greenwich Mean Time was created so that everywhere in Britain kept the same time
Where the population chooses who rules the country and makes the laws
Why was Britain not a democracy in 1760?
Most men and women had no right to vote, power was in the hands of rich male landowners and nothing had changed in the way Britain was ruled for hundreds of years
How was Britain governed in 1760?
There were two political parties, the Tories and the Whigs, most MPs were landowning wealthy men who wanted more money and power, MPs didn't see the need for any political changes and very few men had the right to vote until the mid 1800s
Why did pressures for change increase in 1815?
The war against France had ended and many unemployed soldiers were looking for jobs, orders for weapons and equipment had ended and protests about unemployment, hunger and poverty had increased
People who wanted political reform, who wanted a fairer society and change in the way Britain was run
Why was the government against political reform?
The French Revolution had happened in France in 1789 and the British government didn't want to take any chances of it happening in Britain, so they took strong action against the Radicals
How did the government deal with protests?
The yeomanry were used to guard against any violent radical demonstrations and they also employed spies and agent provocateurs who provoked trouble by helping to plan protests and then telling the government what was happening
Local, part time soldiers who were used to stop radical protests
Spies who set up Radicals to protest and then informed the authorities to get a reward
Spa Fields Protest
The first big protest that threatened to erupt into violence happened in 1816, when a famous orator Henry Hunt spoke, where the yeomanry was used to break up the crowd
Spinners and weavers who planned to protest about the new steam-powered looms in factories
St Peter's Field Protest
In 1819, 60,000 demonstrators came from across the country to listen to speakers peacefully, but the magistrates gathered almost one thousand members of the local yeomanry to deal with a potential riot by riding into the crowd, which killed eleven people and wounded around five hundred people
Why did the Radical War in Scotland begin in 1820?
Unemployment was rising and food prices were increasing
What happened in the Radical War?
A group of men planned to set up a separate government in Scotland and to use force if necessary and they urged workers to go on strike and prepare for an uprising, which led to a group of Radicals marching to Carron Iron Works to seize it, but men deserted and the remaining group was met by yeomanry and army soldiers, who arrested nineteen Radicals
What happened to the Radicals after this?
The leaders were arrested, some were executed and others were sent to Australia to serve in the prison colony
Why was there such discontent with the political system before 1832?
It was corrupt and undemocratic, as political power was in the hands of big landowners and the middle classes wanted that to change and wanted to have a say in running the country
Why was the electoral system before 1832 so unfair and corrupt?
The distribution of seats was unfair and did not relate to the distribution of the population
Towns that still sent MPs to parliament even though they had few or no inhabitants (eg. Old Sarum, Dunwich and Bramber)
How were elections corrupt before 1832?
Powerful landowners and wealthy businessmen controlled the election result to suit themselves, by buying elections for friends or family to gain influence in parliament or bribing and threatening voters with violence to vote as they were told
How was the voting system before 1832 unfair?
Voting was not in secret, so intimidation and bribery were commonly used
Why was parliament reformed in 1832?
Britain was changing and a wealthy middle class was being produced, who wanted to have a say in how the country was run, radical groups and the working class wanted reform and politicians did not want a revolution and the Whigs took control of government in 1832, who were prepared to accept some reform
1832 Reform Act
Changed the distribution of seats by creating new constituencies and abolishing 56 of the most corrupt rotten boroughs and set new, less confusing rules about who could vote
Why did the 1832 Reform Act disappoint people?
The act did not go far enough, as only 1 in 6 men could vote, women could not vote, voting was not secret, MPs had to own property to stand for election, there were still some rotten boroughs, many large towns didn't have MPs and MPs were still unpaid
Why did protest grow again after 1832?
The Reform Act disappointed many people (mainly the working class, who could not vote), a Poor Law was introduced in 1834, which introduced the workhouse system in England and the poorhouse in Scotland, which angered the working class and Britain was facing an economic recession, so unemployment increased but the government didn't believe helping the poor was their responsibility
Supporters of the Charter, which was a document stating how parliament should be made fairer and more democratic
All men to get the vote, to introduce secret voting, to have each MP representing an equal number of people, to have elections every year, to have no property qualifications for MPs and to have paid MPs
National convention of 1839
50 representatives from radical groups across the country met to organise a month-long general strike and to plan how to get people to sign a petition but this alarmed the government as some Chartists wanted to use violence
When a large proportion of the country's workers stop working
Was the Chartists' petition successful?
It was rejected each time it was presented to parliament
Moral force Chartists
Peacefully campaigned through newspapers, petitions, posters and public meetings
Physical force Chartists
Led by Fergus O'Connor who believed a violent uprising was needed
1842 Plug Plot
Factory workers went on strike in support of Chartism by removing the plug from steam engine boilers, which stopped production but the government say this as terrorism campaign and sent 1,500 strikers to Australia
Why did Chartism fail?
The government refused to talk to them and rejected their petitions, many of the signatures on the petition were false, the split between the moral and physical force Chartists weakened the movement, many workers were scared of losing their jobs or being arrested so didn't want to join the movement and the leader, Fergus O'Connor was incompetent and unsuccessful
Why was their growing support for democracy by the 1860s?
Politicians who had been powerful during Radical and Chartist protests were losing their influence, the Prime Minister, Lord Palmerston died in 1865, opening the way for new ideas and politicians no longer saw the working classes as a violent mob but as more educated and respectable artisans
The National Reform Union
A group based in Manchester who supported giving the vote to respectable artisans and to men who paid a local tax on property
The Reform League
A group that demanded the vote for all working men
Why would it be dangerous to hold back reform?
Workers had reached the end of their patience and all workers supported reform
What world events affected how people felt about political change in Britain?
The American Civil War and revolutions in European countries such as Italy and Germany
The Civil War
Fought between the North and South of America about the use of slaves and won by the North, the more modern part of the USA, which was supported by the working and middle class people of Britain
'Stealing the Liberals' clothes'
When the Conservative Prime Minister, Benjamin Disraeli, stole the Liberal ideas about reform and created the Second Reform Act
The 1867 Reform Act
Doubled the electorate and redistributed seats
Why was Britain still not democratic in 1867?
Most men still couldn't vote, there was still no secret ballot, some men had more than one vote, no women could vote and there were only two parties to choose from
1872 Secret Ballot Act
Votes became private, which reduced corruption
1883 Corrupt and Illegal Practises Act
Made bribing illegal and limited the money parties could spend on impressing voters before elections
Founded in 1900 and gave the working class representation
The Third Reform Act of 1884
Gave the vote to countryside workers
1885 Redistribution of Seats Act
Reorganised constituencies across Britain so that each MP represented roughly the same amount of people
How democratic was Britain by 1900?
Britain was still far from being democratic, as many men still could not vote, the political system was dominated by class, skilled working class people did not have representation in parliament (wealthy MPs), poor and unemployed had no vote and the House of Lords was extremely powerful as they could block anything the House of Commons decided to do
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