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Terms in this set (48)
class of organic molecules that are soluble in organic solvents but not in water
_____ are an important feature in cell membranes, fat soluble vitamins and steroid hormones
______ are characterized by the steroid nucleus of four fused carbon rings that do not contain fatty acids and cannot be hydrolyzed
what are some different kind of lipids
waxes, fats, oils, and glycerophospholoipids
what are the simplest type of lipids
contains a long, unbranched carbon chain attached to a carboxylic acid group at one end
what makes a fatty acid unsoluble in water
the long hydrophobic carbon chain
what represents a fatty acid structure
Saturated Fatty Acid
The carbon chain has only single bonds (giving it properties similar to an alkane).
Monounsaturated Fatty Acid
The carbon chain has one double bond (giving it properties similar to an alkene).
Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid
The carbon chain has at least two double bonds (again, giving it properties similar to alkenes).
what are examples of saturated fatty acids
lauric acid - coconut oil
mysristic acid - nutmeg
palmitic acid - palm
stearic acid - animal fat
what are examples of monounsaturated fatty acids
palmitoleic acid- butter
oleic acid - olives, corn
what are examples of polyunsaturated fatty acids
linoleic acid - soybean, sunflower
linolenic acid - corn
arachidonic acid - meat, eggs, fish
properties of fatty acids
-fit closely together
-high temps and energy to separate
________ fatty acids are usually solid at room temps
most ___________ fatty acids are liquids at room temp
hormone like substances produced in low amounts in most cells of the body
Prostaglandins have a number of effects:
•Some increase blood pressure.
•Some decrease blood pressure.
•Some stimulate contraction and relaxation in the muscles of the uterus.
•They are produced when tissues of the body are injured.
an ester of a saturated fatty acid and a long-chain alcohol, containing 14-30 carbon atoms
in the body, fatty acids are stored as fats and oils known as __________
what are the major form of energy storage in animals and used for hibernation?
a ____ is a triacylglycerol that is solid at room temp and usually comes from animal sources such as meat, whole milk, butter and cheese
an ______ is a triclyglycerol that is usually liquid at room temp and is obtained from a plant source
why do saturated fatty acids have a higher melting point than unsaturated
because they pack more tightly
hydrogenation of an unsaturated fat
hydrogen is added to carbon-carbon double bonds to form carbon-carbon single bonds, gas is bubbled through the heated oil in the presence of a nickel catalyst
Products like aspirin block the production of ____________, causing a decrease in pain, fever, or inflammation.
what are the three reactions of fat and oils?
triacylglycerols are _______ in the presence of strong acids or digestive enzymes called lipases
what is the product of hydrolysis of the ester bonds?
glycerol and three fatty acids
a family of lipids with one hydroxyl group of glycerol is repleased by the ester of phosphoric acid and an amino alcohol
what are the three amino acids found in glycerophospholipids
choline, serine, ethanolamine
what are two types of glycerophospholipids that are abundant in brain and nerve tissue as well as in egg yolks, wheat germ, yeast
lecithins and cephalins
what is the important role for glycerophospholipids
the most abundant lipid in cell membranes, playing an important role in permeability. They make up much of the myelin sheath that protects nerve cells
compounds containing the steroid nucleus, which consists of three cyclohexane ring and one cyclopentane ring fused together
_________ is one of the most important and abundant steroids in the body, is a sterol because it contains an oxygen atom as a hydroxyl group on carbon 3
Cholesterol in the body
-component of cellular membranes, myelin sheath and brain and nerve tissue
-found in liver, bile salts, and skins
-found in adrenal gland to synthesize steroid hormones
-obtained from eating eggs, meats, milk
what does the American Heart Association say about the amount of cholesterol we should consume a day
what are some issues with high cholesterol intake
gallstones may form
what part of the cholesterol is the steroid nucleus
four fused rings
in the body _____ must be transported through the blood stream to tissues where they are stored, used for energy or to make hormones
combining glycerophospholipids and proteins to form water soluble complexes
what are the main components of a cell membrane
what do glycerophospholipids consist of
nonpolar region, or tail
long-chain fatty acid and a polar region, or head
from phosphoric acid and amino alcohols that ionize at 7.4
how are glycerophospholiids arranged in the cell membrane called the lipid bilayer
nonpolar tails, hydrophobic move to the center
polar heads, hydrophilic, align along outer edges of membrane
fluid mosaic model
glycerophospholipids do not fit closely together causing them to be fluid
proteins, carbs and cholesterol molecules found
what adds strength to the cell membrane
cholesterol because the molecules are large and rigid, reducing the flexibility of the lipid bilayer
what do the carbs do on the cell membrane
project into the surrounding fluid environment where they are responsible for cell recognition and communication with chemical messengers such as hormones and neurotransmitters
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