59 terms

Psychology Final

When we say that Gordon is quiet and unassuming, we are describing his:
personality traits.
The superego is Freud's term for:
the moral component of personality.
According to the psychoanalytic view, many important life choices and decisions are based on:
unconscious urges and mechanisms.
According to Jung, one's personal unconscious contains
repressed or forgotten information.
Stable behavioral traits that evolve as a function of natural selection.
Stable behavioral traits that evolve as a function of natural selection.
In explaining a person's aggressiveness, a social cognitive theorist would favor which of the following explanations?
observational learning
Which of the following approaches to personality is MOST firmly rooted in empirical research?
behavioral approach
Humanistic personality theories focus on:
an individual's freedom and potential for growth.
The personality theory of Carl Rogers is known as:
person-centered theory.
The correct order of the needs in Maslow's hierarchy, from most basic to highest level, is:
physiological, safety, love, esteem, cognitive, aesthetic, self actualization.
According to Hans Eysenck, personality is largely:
Early investigations of the connection between culture and personality were largely guided by which of the following theories?
Freud's psychoanalytic theory
Stefan is from the Czech Republic. Based on research using the Big Five personality traits, you would predict Stefan will be high in:
A systematic tendency to respond to questions on a personality inventory in a way that is unrelated to the content of the questions is called a:
response set.
The idea that a person's unconscious needs will determine how he or she perceives relatively unstructured stimuli is the basis for:
the TAT
Prior to the 18th century, people who exhibited abnormal behavior were thought to be:
possessed by evil spirits and were treated through exorcism.
Behavior that interferes with an individual's social or occupational functioning may be considered to be:
The DSM classification system is said to be "multiaxial." This means that the system:
asks for judgments about individuals on numerous separate dimensions.
he most common psychological disorders in the United States are:
anxiety disorders.
Dave washes his hands at least 50 times per day, even though his hands are rarely dirty. Dave's behavior is an example of:
a compulsion.
Somatoform disorders involve:
apparent physical illness caused by psychological factors.
Most authentic cases of multiple-personality disorder have in common a background of:
a traumatic childhood characterized by physical, emotional, or sexual abuse.
Inflated self-esteem, distractibility, heightened emotionality, and grandiose planning are all symptoms associated with:
bipolar disorders.
Schizophrenia is characterized by:
a fragmentation of thought processes.
A two-category scheme for classification of schizophrenia has been suggested as an alternative to the older four categories. These two categories are based on:
predominance of positive or negative symptoms.
Some research studies have found that, compared to control subjects, schizophrenic patients are:
more likely to have a history of obstetrical complications.
The class of disorders marked by extreme and inflexible characteristics that cause subjective distress or impaired social and occupational functioning are referred to as:
personality disorders.
Which of the following statements is LEAST accurate?
Prevalence estimates for most diagnostic categories appear to be quite similar across cultures.
The stress-vulnerability models that have been developed for mood disorders and schizophrenic disorders illustrate which of your text's unifying themes?
Heredity and environment jointly influence behavior.
In determining the probabilities associated with comorbidity (the coexistence of two or more psychological disorders), epidemiologists would need to work with:
conjunctive probabilities.
Drug therapy is classified as ________ therapy; electroconvulsive shock therapy is classified as ________ therapy.
a biomedical; a biomedical
Compared to psychologists, in their provision of therapy psychiatrists tend to:
emphasize biomedical treatments more.
A therapist's attempt to explain the significance of a client's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors is referred to as:
A client in psychoanalysis has been arriving late for sessions, acting hostile to the analyst, and making up dreams. This is MOST likely:
Rogers believed that client-centered therapists must provide unconditional positive regard for their clients. In other words, they must:
show complete, nonjudgmental acceptance of the client as a person.
Therapists who tend to see symptoms as the problem rather than as signs of more internal, underlying problems are:
behavior therapists.
Which of the following assumptions are LEAST likely to be made by a behavioral therapist?
Overt behaviors are symptoms of an underlying problem.
Therapy that involves pairing a stimulus that leads to an undesirable behavior with an unconditioned stimulus that is unpleasant is:
Aversion Therapy
Uncovering the patterns of thinking and assumptions behind maladaptive behavior and then assessing their validity is at the core of:
cognitive therapy.
A major drug used to reduce the symptoms of schizophrenia is:
Eclectic therapists:
use ideas and techniques from a variety of therapeutic approaches.
The community health movement emphasizes all of the following EXCEPT:
reduced dependence on medication to treat psychological disorders.
Today there are many alternative approaches to treatment, including client-centered therapy, cognitive therapy, behavior therapy, and biomedical therapies. This wide range of alternatives illustrates that:
psychology is theoretically diverse.
With regard to a therapist's sex:
you should feel free to look for a therapist of one sex or the other if it is personally important to you.
Placebo effects occur when:
people's expectations lead them to experience some change, even though they receive a fake or ineffective treatment.
Research on physical attractiveness has shown that:
we tend to ascribe desirable personality characteristics to good-looking people.
In making a causal attribution, we first tend to decide if an event was due to:
internal or external causes.
Making excuses for problems (blaming something else) reflects a:
self-serving bias.
Which of the following factors is NOT one that influences a person's initial attraction to someone else?
attributional style
Findings from recent studies suggest that people adjust their tactics of attraction as a function of which of the following?
Whether they are pursuing a short-term or long-term relationship.
Research has revealed that attitudes are:
mediocre predictors of behavior.
Persuasion is MOST likely to be successful when the source of the persuasive communication:
is perceived as trustworthy.
Cognitive dissonance refers to the state one is in when:
cognitions are inconsistent.
In Asch's studies, what was the relationship between group size and conformity?
Conformity increased steadily as group size went from two to four, and then leveled off.
Which of the following psychologists is known for conducting classic research on obedience to authority?
Stanley Milgram
Which of the following is NOT a defining feature of a group?
The members must meet face-to-face.
A shift toward more extreme decisions in a group as a function of discussion is referred to as:
group polarization.
Unjustly blaming victims of misfortune for their misfortune defines:
a defensive attribution.
Groups seeking donations routinely send address labels and other small gifts with their pleas. This approach illustrates which of the following social influence techniques?
reciprocity norm