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First Aid Biochem (metabolism 1: Rate determining enzymes)

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Metabolism sites

Mitochondria (4)
1. Fatty acid oxidation (β-oxidation)
2. Acetyl-CoA production
3. TCA cycle
4. Oxidative phosphorylation
Metabolism sites

Cytoplasm (5)
1. Glycolysis
2. Fatty acid synthesis
3. HMP shunt
4. Protein synthesis (RER)
5. Steroid synthesis (SER)
Metabolism sites

Both (3)
1. Heme synthesis
2. Urea cycle
3. Gluconeogenesis
"HUGs take TWO"
Enzyme terminology

1. Kinase
2. Phosphorylase
3. Phosphatase
4. Dehydrogenase
5. Carboxylase
1. Kinase - use ATP to add high-energy phosphate group onto substrate (e.g. phosphofructokinase)

2. Phosphorylase - adds inorganic phosphate onto substrate without using ATP (e.g. glycogen phosphorylase)

3. Phosphatase - removes phosphate group from substrate (e.g. fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase)

4. Dehydroenase - oxidizes substrate (e.g. pyruvate dehydrogenase)

5. Carboxylase - adds 1 carbon with the help of biotin (e.g. pyruvate carboxylase)
Rate-determining enzymes of metabolic processes

Glycolysis
Phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1)
Rate-determining enzymes of metabolic processes

Gluconeogenesis
Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase
Rate-determining enzymes of metabolic processes

TCA cycle
Isocitrate dehydrogenase
Rate-determining enzymes of metabolic processes

Glycogen synthesis
Glycogen phosphorylase
Rate-determining enzymes of metabolic processes

Glycogenolysis
Glycogen phosphorylase
Rate-determining enzymes of metabolic processes

HMP shunt
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)
Rate-determining enzymes of metabolic processes

De novo pyrimidine synthesis
Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II
Rate-determining enzymes of metabolic processes

De novo purine synthesis
Glutamine-PRPP amidotransferase
Rate-determining enzymes of metabolic processes

Urea cycle
Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I
Rate-determining enzymes of metabolic processes

Fatty acid synthesis
Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC)
Rate-determining enzymes of metabolic processes

Fatty acid oxidation
Carnitine acyltransferase I
Rate-determining enzymes of metabolic processes

Ketogenesis
HMG-CoA synthase
Rate-determining enzymes of metabolic processes

Cholesterol synthesis
HMG-CoA reductase