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Unit 2: Earthquakes and Earth's Interior
Big Idea (Core Concept): A model of the structure and dynamics of Earth's Interior where the transfer of heat from the interior towards the surface causes slow movement of Earth's tectonic plates is based largely on recordings of seismic waves.
Terms in this set (30)
the soft layer of the mantle on which the lithosphere floats; also known as the upper mantle
the solid outer shell of the earth, with an average thickness of 30--35 km in continental regions forming the upper part of the lithosphere and lying immediately above the mantle
the slow circulation of subcrustal material, thought to be the mechanism by which tectonic plates are moved
The layer of rock that forms Earth's outer surface
the shaking that results from the movement of rock beneath Earth's surface
elastic rebound theory
states that as tectonic plates move relative to each other, elastic strain energy builds up along their edges in the rocks along fault planes; when the strain becomes too great movement occurs along the fault plane
the point on Earth's surface directly above an earthquake's focus
occur along plate boundaries, where the forces of plate motion push or pull the crust so much that the crust breaks
the point beneath Earth's surface when rock breaks under stress and causes an earthquake
the force of attraction that moves or tends to move bodies towards the center of the earth
A dense sphere of solid iron and nickel at the center of Earth
a measure of the size of an earthquake based on observation of the effects of the shock at the earth's surface; specified on the Mercalli scale
A rigid layer made up of the uppermost part of the mantle and the crust; the solid portion of the earth
The layer of hot, solid material between Earth's crust and core
surrounds and permeates the Earth; It's presence causes compass needles to line up in a north-south direction.
a measure of the size of an earthquake based on the quantity of energy released: specified on the Richter scale
a scale that rates earthquakes according to their intensity and how much damage they cause a a particular place
to simulate (a process, concept, or the operation of a system), commonly with the aid of a computer.
the solid outer shell of the earth, with an average thickness of 5 km beneath the oceans, forming the upper part of the lithosphere and lying immediately above the mantle
A layer of molten iron and nickel that surrounds the inner core of Earth
a type of seismic wave that compresses and expands the ground; first waves to arrive; primary waves
A section of the lithosphere that slowly moves over the asthenosphere, carrying pieces of continental and oceanic crust
the energy or wave from an earthquake that has been returned from a boundary between two different materials within the earth
a scale that rates an earthquake's magnitude based on the size of its seismic waves
a type of seismic wave that moves the ground up and down or side to side; secondary waves
the science or study of earthquakes and their phenomena.
a type of seismic wave that forms when P waves and S waves reach Earth's surface; move slowly but can produce severe ground movements.
the total energy of motion in the particles of a substance
the soft layer of the mantle on which the lithosphere floats; also known as the asthenosphere
the maximum displacement of the particle motions, or the height of the ripple crest; used to measure the size of an earthquake
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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