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one of the few accomplished women artists of the Renaissance; painted pictures of strong, heroic women

The Medici Family

wealthy banking family of Florence, Italy. Cosimo came to rule Florence in 1430's. Ruled throughout 15th century and were patrons of the arts. Lorenzo was know as "the magnificent" for his patronage of the arts


Invented movable type for printing press; First book he printed was the Bible; for the first time, books were cheap enough for people to buy them. Important invention in spreading the Reformation

John Calvin

religious reformer; believed in Predestination (god has already chosen who will be saved and who won't be); followers called Hugenots (France), Puritans (England), Presbyterians (Scotland)

Leo X

the pope who excommunicated Martin Luther and who in 1521 bestowed on Henry VIII the title of Defender of the Faith (1475-1521)

Johannes Tetzel

person who sold indulgences, near where Luther was-- Luther was very against this practice- sparked him to write 95 theses

Henry VIII

English King who at first defended Catholicism against Luther "defender of the Faith;" Wanted a divorce, but pope won't allow it, so he breaks with Catholicism; Parliament creates Act of Supremacy making him, not the pope, head of the English Church; takes back land from church and breaks up monasteries.

Elizabeth I (Tudor)

English ruler, daughter of Henry III; Protestant; tried to create a compromise to avoid further religious conflict in England; Set up the Anglican church

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