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31 terms

PSY 100 Ch. 13

STUDY
PLAY
Personality
An individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
Free Association
Psychonanalysis; method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind
Psychoanalysis
Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; seek to expose and interpret unconscious tensions
Unconscious
According to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories; information processing of which we are unaware
Psychosexual Stages
Childhood stages of development during which the id's pleasure seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones; Freud
Identification
Process by which children incorporate their parent's values into their developing superegos; Freud
Fixation
Lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage in which conflicts were unresolved; Freud
Defense Mechanism
Ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality; repression, regression, projection, rationalization, displacement, denial
Reaction Formation
Psychoanalytic defense mechanism where the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses for their opposites
Collective Unconscious
Carl Jung's concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history
Projective Test
Personality test that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics; Rorschach or TAT
Thematic Apperception Test
TAT; Projective test where people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes
Rorschach Inkblot Test
Most widely used projective test; seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their blot interpretations
Terror-Management Theory
Theory of death-related anxiety; explores people's emotional and behavioral responses to reminders to their impending death
Self-Actualization
One of the ultimate psychological needs that arises after basic physical needs are met an self-esteem is achieved; motivation to fulfill one's potential; Maslow
Unconditional Positive Regard
An attitude of total acceptance toward another person; Rogers
Self-Concept
All our thoughts and feelings about ourselves when answering "Who am I?"
Trait
A characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act as assessed by self-report and peer inventories
Personality Inventory
Questionnaire where people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; assesses selected personality traits
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
MMPI; most widely researched and used personality test; identifies emotional disorders
Empirically Derived Test
Test developed by testing a pool of items and selecting those that discriminate between groups; MMPI
Social-Cognitive Perspective
Views behavior as influenced by the interaction between people's traits and their social context
Reciprocal Determinism
Interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition, and environment
Personal Control
Extent to which people perceive control over their environment rather than feeling helpless
External Locus of Control
Perception that chance or outside forces beyond your personal control determine your fate
Internal Locus of Control
Perception that you control your own fate
Learned Helplessness
Hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events
Positive Psychology
Scientific study of optimal human functioning; aims to discover and promote strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive
Self
Assumed to be the center of personality; organizer of thoughts, feelings, an actions; for contemporary psych
Spotlight Effect
Overestimating others' noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders
Self-Serving Bias
Readiness to perceive oneself favorably