Cell Anatomy, Membrane & Transport
Terms in this set (70)
Basic living, structural, and functional unit of the body
The ability to distinguish two items as separate
Control center of cell, contains genetic material for cell reproduction, DNA, genes, contains nucleoplasm
Chromosomes (DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid)
Nucleoli (areas of active DNA)
Assembly site for ribosomes (RNA) (structures in which protein synthesis occurs in cytoplasm)
One strand of this contains many genes which are needed to give instructions for how to make and operate all parts of our bodies.
These are made of DNA
A threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes
Background substance in the nucleus.
The largest structure in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells where it primarily serves as the site of ribosome synthesis and assembly
Structures in which protein synthesis occurs in cytoplasm
The material of which the chromosomes of organisms other than bacteria (i.e., eukaryotes) are composed. It consists of protein, RNA, and DNA
Any of a group of basic proteins found in chromatin
A description of the membrane of a cell
Microscopic cellular membrane protrusions that increase the surface area of cells and minimize any increase in volume
The cell substance between the cell membrane and the nucleus, containing the cytosol, organelles, cytoskeleton, and various particles.
The water-soluble components of cell cytoplasm, constituting the fluid portion that remains after removal of the organelles and other intracellular structures.
A specialized part of a cell having some specific function; a cell organ
Within a cell or cells
Situated between or among cells
A minute, narrow tubelike cell structure composed of a protein similar to actin, occurring singly and in bundles, involved in cytoplasmic movement and changes in cell shape.
Cytoskeleton component that consist of several different proteins and resist mechanical (pulling) forces acting on cells
Part of cytoskeleton that help generate movement and provide mechanical support
A slender threadlike structure, especially a microscopic whiplike appendage that enables many protozoa, bacteria, spermatozoa, etc., to swim
The fine hairlike projections from certain cells such as those in the respiratory tract that sweep in unison and help to sweep away fluids and particles.
A small cylindrical organelle near the nucleus in animal cells, occurring in pairs and involved in the development of spindle fibers in cell division
Composed of two subunits containing RNA and proteins; may be free in cytosol or attached to rough ER, responsible for protein synthesis.
Network of flattened sacs or tubes covered by ribosomes and attached to the nuclear envelope. Responsible for synthesizing glycoproteins and phospholipids that are transferred to cellular organelles, inserted into plasma membrane, or secreted during exocytosis.
Network of flattened sacs or tubes attached to the nuclear envelope. Synthesizes fatty acids and steroids, inactiviates or detoxifies drugs, removes phosphate group from glucose-6-phosphate, and stores and releases calcium ions in muscle cells.
A lipid with one or more phosphate groups attached to it
An organelle, consisting of layers of flattened sacs, that takes up and processes secretory and synthetic products from the endoplasmic reticulum and then either releases the finished products into various parts of the cell cytoplasm or secretes them to the outside of the cell.
An organelle in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells containing degradative enzymes enclosed in a membrane
Controlled digestion of damaged organelles within a cell
The destruction of cells or tissues by their own enzymes, especially those released by lysosomes
A small organelle that is present in the cytoplasm of many cells and that contains the reducing enzyme catalase and usually some oxidases
An organelle in the cytoplasm of cells that functions in energy production.
The oxidation breakdown of food to create energy.
ATP is a nucleotide that contains a large amount of chemical energy stored in its high-energy phosphate bonds
Having two different affinities, as a polar end that is attracted to water and a nonpolar end that is repelled by it.
A protein subunit in which the polypeptide chain is exposed on both sides of the membrane.
A protein that temporarily adheres to the biological membrane, either to the lipid bilayer or to integral proteins by a combination of hydrophobic, electrostatic, and other non-covalent interactions.
ion channel protein
A single protein or protein complex that traverses the lipid bilayer of cell membrane and form a channel to facilitate the movement of ions through the membrane according to their electrochemical gradient
cell-identity marker proteins
Biochemical or genetic characteristics which distinguish and discriminate between different cell types.
A protein that serves the function of moving other materials within an organism.
An intracellular protein or protein fraction having a high specific affinity for binding agents known to stimulate cellular activity, such as a steroid hormone or cyclic AMP.
A specific molecule that binds to a receptor.
Catalyzes reaction inside or outside cell.
Anchors filaments inside and outside the plasma membrane, providing structural stability and shape for the cell. May also participate in movement of the cell or link two cells together.
A membrane-bound transporter found in nearly all mammalian cells that transports potassium ions into the cytoplasm from the extracellular fluid while simultaneously transporting sodium ions out of the cytoplasm to the extracellular fluid.
A process resulting from osmosis in which red blood cells, in a hypertonic solution, undergo shrinkage and acquire a notched or scalloped surface.
One that allows certain molecules or ions to pass through it by means of active or passive transport.
The process of particles, which are sometimes called solutes, moving through a solution or gas from an area of higher number of particles to an area of lower number of particles. The areas are typically separated by a membrane.
A gradient of electrochemical potential, usually for an ion that can move across a membrane.
A movement of biochemicals and other atomic or molecular substances across cell membranes. Unlike active transport, it does not require an input of chemical energy, being driven by the growth of entropy of the system.
Molecules that pass directly through the cell membrane without energy along the concentration gradient.
A liquid mixture in which the minor component (the solute) is uniformly distributed within the major component (the solvent).
The minor component in a solution, dissolved in the solvent.
the liquid in which a solute is dissolved to form a solution
Passive movement of water molecules across a selectively permeable membrane from an area of higher to lower water concentration until equilibrium is reached.
channel-mediated facilitated diffusion
Diffusion of particles through a membrane by means of channel structures in the membrane (particles move down their concentration gradient)
Diffusion of particles through a membrane by means of carrier structures in the membrane (particles move down their concentration gradient)
primary active transport
Energy derived from hydrolysis of ATP changes the shape of a carrier protein, which "pumps" a substance across a plasma membrane against its concentration gradient.
Materials move into a cell in a vesicle formed from the plasma membrane
Materials move out of a cell by the fusion with the plasma membrane of vesicles formed inside the cell.
A form of endocytosis in which the cell engulfs large solid particles, such as worn-out cells, whole bacteria, or viruses.
A form of endocytosis in which tiny droplets of extracellular fluid are taken up
Releases materials from a cell
Any solution in which a cell maintains its normal shape and volume.
A solution that has a lower concentration of solutes than a cell and results in the cell swelling or bursting
A solution that has a higher concentration of solutes than a cell and results in shrinkage of the cell.
The rupture or destruction of red blood cells