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-Miconazole (very common- used in Micatin & Monistat)
Relationship between host & parsite, and the ensuing struggle for supremacy
-If host loses = disease
Infection that does NOT cause disease
-It is a symbiotic association (Mutualism, Commensalism; Thus, no harm to the host)
Ability of a parasite to enter host tissue and/or cells --> physiological change --> disease
Organism that is normally a commesal
-Due to circumstances that debilitate host defenses, organism invades & causes disease
Stages of Disease
1.) Incubation Period
2.) Prodromal Period
3.) Period of Acme
4.) Period of Decline
5.) Period of Convalescence
Organism Establishes Infection:
1.) Travel to an area where it can divide
2.) Has to find a way around the immune response
Period of Incubation
-No signs or symptoms
-Amount of time that elapses between entry of organism & appearance of symptoms
Period of Prodomal Symptoms
-Mild signs or symptoms
-Period characterized by general symptoms, i.e. nausea, fever, etc.
Period of Acme
-Most severe signs of symptoms
-Acute stage of disease, characterized by specific symptoms, i.e. skin rash, jaundice, etc.
Period of Decline
-Signs & symptoms
-Symptoms begin to subside
-May be preceded by "crisis" period, then rapid recovery
Close or personal contact with individual who has disease, shaking hands, kissing, etc.
By consumption of contaminated food or water, contact with fomites (contaminated inanimate objects, i.e. towels)
Singular events whereby agent is acquired directly from environment, and NOT transmitted to a new host
-Disease develops slowly
-No real crisis is reached
-Convalescence may last for months
-Substances or structures that allow a pathogen to generate disease in the host
Natural Defense Mechanisms
2.) Mucous membranes
3.) Ciliated epithelium
4.) Various enzymes
5.) Other proteins
7.) Inflammatory response
1.) Capillary Dilation
2.) Cells escape capillary bed
-Edema (Fluid escape= swelling)
-Redness (RBC's escaping)
-Generated to respond to a particular parasite
-Directed solely at that parasite
Antigen (Aspect of Specific Responses)
Foreign substance that stimulates the generation of an immune response, "Non-Self vs. Self"
-Have very specific surface receptors for antigen
-All look alike, but actually 2 major types
-Found in tissues & organs
-Plays major role in immunity
-Degrade it ("processed antigen")
-Redisplay processed antigen on surface
-Transport processed antigen to lymphoid tissue where T- and B-cells are waiting
Two Divisions of Immune Response:
1.) Antibody-Mediated Immunity (Humoral)
2.) Cell-Mediated Immunity
Defense mechanisms that are mediated by T-cells and:
-"Antigen-marked" cell i.e. cell modified by viral infection, cancer or mutation
CTL- Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte
The end-stage cell that has the ability to actively destory non-self cells
-Principle antibody in "memory" response
-Only class to cross placenta = passive immunity
-Serum IgA - monomer in blood
-Secretory IgA- polymer in secretions
-Passive transfer in mother's milk
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