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29 terms

Introduction to Electricity

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Protons
parts of an atom that carry a positive charge
Neutrons
parts of an atom that carry a neutral charge
Electrons
parts of an atom that carry a negative charge
Ions
charged atoms
Law of Electric Charges
like charges repel each other
& unlike charges attract
2 things that electric forces are effected by
1. size of charged particles
2. distance between charged objects
Force
charged objects push/pull on other charged objects
Electric Field
a region around a charged particle that can exert a force on another charged particle.
3 Ways an object can become charged
1. Friction
2. Conduction
3. Induction
Friction
occurs when you rub something against something else
Conduction
occurs when electrons are transferred from one object to another by direct contact
Induction
occurs when charges are rearranged in an uncharged object without directly contacting a charged object
Conductors
materials that electric charges can move easily through
Insulators
materials that do not allow electric charges to flow through them
Static Electricity
a build-up of charges in an object...(these charges eventually leave the object)
Electric Discharge
a loss of static electricity as charges move off an object
Electric Current
delivers electrical energy to machines
(definition: flow of charges)
Batteries
made up of several cells that covert chemical energy into electrical energy
Voltage
the difference in energy between 2 points of a moving charge
Current
the total number of electrons flowing past a point each second
Amps
unit of current measurement
Resistance
opposition to a flow of electric charge (the higher the resistance, the lower the current)
Ohms
unit of resistance measurement
Electric Power
the rate at which electrical energy is used to do work
Watt
unit of measurement for power
Circuit
a complete closed path rghough wich electric charges flow
Series Circuit
a circuit in which all parts are connected in a single loop (has only 1 path for current tol flow)
Parallell Circuit
has more than one path for current to flow
Circuit breakers
limit the amount of current flowing through a wire