115 terms

Environmental Chapter 4

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Which past president of the APHA made a short speech about how we (the U.S.) have not "completed the task of preventing environmentally provoked disease and of providing more protection for the ecological system?"
Bailus Walker
What approach is argued as essential for policy development in the arena of the environment? Give an example of applying this approach.
A systems approach/holistic thinking

Example: farming practices - health consequences of agricultural pollution, economic factors like market costs, etc.
How does the environmental policy process reflect tension between political considerations and scientific knowledge? Give some examples.
The public may reject environmental policies that are justified scientifically
Example: logging communities reject prohibitions on deforestation

Politics may be instrumental in the adoption of environmental policies that might not be scientifically justified
Example: there is evidence that low levels of pollutants in water don't cause any adverse effects, but consumers may demand that they be taken out
Define "environmental policy"
Environmental policy = a statement by an organization (public or private) of its intentions and principles in relation to its overall environmental performance that provides a framework for action and for the setting of its environmental objects and targets
What is the goal of environmental policy?
to reduce human risks or environmental damages resulting from pollution
What are the 4 environmental principles and philosophies that may guide the work of those who are charged with creation of policy?
Precautionary principle
Environmental justice
Environmental sustainability
Polluter-pays principle
What is one big ethical issue for environmental policy developers?
the acceptable level of risk associated with a potential hazard
What does the precautionary principle state?
"preventative, anticipatory measures...should be taken when an activity raises threats of harm to the environment, wildlife, or human health, even if some cause-and-effect relationships are not fully established"

We should take protective measures even when full scientific certainty is lacking
What is an example of a possible application of the precautionary principle?
the issue of endocrine disruptors in products
What are endocrine disruptors? Give 2 examples.
Exogenous substances that alter functions of the endocrine system, or its progeny, or (sub)populations

Examples: DDT and the organochlorine family of pesticides both have estrogenic effects (they act as female hormones)
How might endocrine disruptors effect human health? What about animal health?
Scientists have speculated that they may be related to sexual abnormalities such as low sperm count in humans and changes in the sexual functioning of aquatic animals
What does research show about endocrine disruptors?
There are currently not demonstrated carcinogenic effects, which is what most of the research is concerned with
What would the precautionary principle argue for endocrine disruptors?
It would argue for the control of these chemicals because even though there is no known cancer risk doesn't mean that there aren't other risks
What should more research focus on when studying endocrine disruptors?
Damage to the endocrine and immune systems
Exposures early in life versus later
The US doesn't control endocrine disruptors according to the precautionary principle, but where are they controlled that way?
European Union
Define "environmental justice"
Environmental justice = the equal treatment of all people in society irrespective of their racial background, country of origin, and socioeconomic status related to environmental hazards
The presence of hazard may be the end product of disparities of power and privilege within a community. Who might this more adversely effect?
Unequal exposures by people from different racial, ethnic, or socioeconomic groups, especially children of color
What does the EPA say about the meaningful involvement of all people with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and policies?
Meaningful involvement means that...
1. people have an opportunity to participate in decisions about activities that may effect their environment and/or health
2. the public's contribution can influence the regulatory agency's decision
3. their concerns will be considered in the decision making process
4. the decision makers seek out and facilitate the involvement of those potentially affected

(lol yeah right does any of this ever happen in real life??)
What philosophical viewpoint does environmental sustainability adhere to?
"a strong, just, and wealthy society can be consistent with a clean environment, healthy ecosystems, and a beautiful planet"
What are the 3 components of sustainable development?
1. materials and energy use
2. land use
3. human development
Environmental sustainability means that resources should not be ________ faster than they can be ___________, and that there should be no _________ change to the natural environment
depleted

regenerated

permanent
When was the polluter-pays principle implemented? What does the polluter-pays principle state as defined by the OECD? Does it include accidental releases?
It was implemented in 1974 by the OECD

"...the polluter should bear the expenses of carrying out the pollution prevention and control measures introduced by public authorities in member countries, to ensure that the environment is in an acceptable state"

YES, it includes accidental releases
What are the 5 stages of the policy cycle?
1. Problem definition, formulation, and reformulation
2. Agenda setting
3. Policy establishment (like adoption and legislation)
4. Policy implementation
5. Policy assessment

See Figure 4-1 for picture
What often triggers policy legislation?
Identification of a 'problem'
Building momentum among 'concerned' parties to address the 'problem' - population of individuals, dramatic events, small number of well-financed individuals
Evidence-based assessment of hazard(s)
Role of 'stake holders' on various sides of the issue
POLICY CYCLE
Describe problem definition, formulation, and reformulation
What happens: define problems and alternatives
Who performs the function: formal and informal policy actors
What factors influence: research and science, interest groups, public opinion, social and economic factors
Problems encountered: poorly defined problems

This stage can occur at the beginning of the policy process or at the end if it is reformulation, causing the process to repeat

Considered one of the most crucial phases

Table 4-1
POLICY CYCLE
Describe agenda setting
What happens: set priorities (budget constraints, resource restrictions, complexity and risk of the problem, public support), involve stakeholders (especially indigenous groups, note the culture)
Who performs the function: formal and informal policy actors
What factors influence: research and science, interest groups, public opinion, social and economic factors
Problems encountered: lack of info on risk, lack of coordination (there may not be studies done, fragmentation of authority, etc.)
POLICY CYCLE
Describe policy establishment
What happens: formally adopt policy, legitimization
Who performs the function: formal decision makers
What factors influence: research and science, interest groups, public opinion, social and economic factors
Problems encountered: inability to coordinate and assess research information
POLICY CYCLE
Describe policy implementation
What happens: putting the policy into practice
Who performs the function: government agencies
What factors influence: research and science, interest groups, public opinion, social and economic factors
Problems encountered: lack of government support
POLICY CYCLE
Describe policy assessment
What happens: assess or evaluate effectiveness
Who performs the function: arms of government responsible for assessment
What factors influence: research and science, interest groups, public opinion, social and economic factors
Problems encountered: lack of sound scientific data
Generally, is public support for protecting the environment strong?
YES!!

Environmental policies are likely to gain acceptance in many sectors of society
Define "environmental objective." Give an example.
A statement/goal intended to be assessed using info from a monitoring program

Example: the amount of particulate matter in Mexico City will be reduced by 10% during the next 5 years
The creation of a sound ______ requires a foundation of sound ____
policy

data
Describe the complexity and interrelatedness of some environmental issues using pesticides as an example.
1. Pesticide use involves multiple contaminants that have differing characteristics
2. Exposure of the population to contaminants can arise from unspecified sources as well as clearly delineated sources; sometimes it is difficult to identify the sources of pesticide emissions
3. The costs incurred to measure pesticide emissions are high
4. There may be interactions among different types of pesticides
Outline the links between hazard, risk, impacts, and social cost.
Hazard - physical and chemical properties like boiling point, color, volatility
Risk - probability of exposure, taking into account quantities, etc.
Impact - actual effects/harm
Social cost - society's perception of the importance of harm to the environment
When should risk assessment occur in the policy process? Who should be involved?
At the beginning

Different stakeholders should be involved early in the risk analysis to "characterize" risk even before a formal assessment, especially to take into account all of the multiple dimensions of the risk
Define "biomarker"
Biomarker = a specific biochemical in the body which has a particular molecular feature that makes it useful for measuring the progress of a disease or the effects of treatment
Define "risk management"
The adoption of steps to eliminate identified risks or lower them to acceptable levels
Give an example of a risk assessment, policy, and risk management plan using lead.
Suppose that a risk assessment shows that exposure to lead is harmful to children

A government agency then adopts a policy that states that children shall be protected from environmental exposures to lead

The risk management plan involves the adoption and implementation of procedures that are designed to protect children from lead exposure
What are the 4 methods of risk management?
1. Licensing laws
2. Standard-setting laws
3. Control-oriented measures
4. Monitoring
METHODS OF RISK MANAGEMENT
Describe licensing laws
Require licensing and registration for new and existing chemicals, including requirements for toxicity testing, including the FIFRA
Define "FIFRA"
FIFRA = Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act
METHODS OF RISK MANAGEMENT
Describe standard-setting laws
Establish standards of exposure for chemicals used in specific situations

Example: Clean Air Act
METHODS OF RISK MANAGEMENT
Describe control-oriented measures
Deal with explicitly identified chemicals, groups of chemicals, or chemical processes

Example: the design of packages so that they are childproof and prevent young children's access to harmful substances
METHODS OF RISK MANAGEMENT
Describe monitoring
Measures of the level of an environmental toxin so that regulations can be enforced

Examples: monitoring programs are in place for ozone, smog, and pesticide levels in food to name a few
Define "environmental impact"
Environmental impact = any change to the environment, whether adverse or beneficial, wholly or partially resulting from an organization's activities, procedures, or services
Define "anthropogenic"
Anthropogenic = human-related
Define "EIA"
EIA = environmental impact assessment; a process that reviews the potential impact of anthropogenic activities with respect to their general environmental consequences
Give an example of when an EIA would be done.
An EIA would consider whether a proposed residential development would increase water and air pollution beyond acceptable limits or endanger threatened species of animals and plants
What are the specific steps of an EIA?
Environmental and social baseline studies
Project description and EIA terms of reference
EIA studies and impact analysis
Management and monitoring plans
Government review of EIA
Government decision on EIA

Stakeholders are engaged throughout this entire process
Define "abatement measure" and give an example.
Abatement measure = a procedure for the control of pollution that is found by an EIA before the pollution is produced; it should be cost-effective and feasible

Example: construction of catch basins for containment of water runoff from new housing developments in order to prevent polluted water from reaching the ocean
Define "HIA"
HIA = health impact assessment; a method for describing and estimating the effects that a proposed project or policy may have on the health of a population

There are 6 stages but the book only defines 1: in-depth appraisal of data relevant to the project
What are the 3 main types of HIAs?

(from Dr. Moore's ppt, not in the book)
Desktop HIA - broad overview of possible health impacts, no new data collection, analysis of existing data, usually 2-3 weeks

Limited in-country HIA - details info of possible health impacts, no new data collection, analysis of existing data, 10-14 days in the field, 4-8 weeks of analysis and document prep

Comprehensive HIA - full assessment of possible health impacts, robust definitions of impacts, no new data collection, 2-4 weeks in-country field work, 2-4 months of community surveys
Summarize the case study: 2009-2014 EPA Strategic Plan
According to the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993, the EPA must develop a strategic plan every 3 years.

As in previous Strategic Plans, the 2009-2014 plan provides a framework for annual planning, budgeting, and accountability, and it also includes specific target areas to improve on.
CASE STUDY
What were the 9 specific target areas from the 2009-2014 EPA Strategic Plan?
1. Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions
2. Sustainable agriculture
3. Impacts of global climate change
4. Containments
5. Import safety
6. Improving program implementation in Indian Country (Native American??)
7. Enforcement/compliance measurement approach
8. Research strategic directions and targets
9. Environmental indicators, monitoring, and related information
Summarize the case study: Protection of the Arctic and Antarctic Environments
Significant contamination of organic materials, toxic metals, and radioactivity has occurred in the Arctic and Antarctic from the industrialized areas in the world, military activities, tourism, and scientific exploration. Policies are needed to protect these specific regions. The Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program will aid in the development of said policies.
CASE STUDY
What are some of the Arctic contaminants that were found in food and human tissue samples?
Industrial chemicals and by-products
Examples: polychlorinated biphenyls, flame retardants

Pesticides
Example: DDT

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Example: benzopyrene

Heavy metals
Examples: mercury, lead

Products of nuclear radiation
Summarize the case study: Water Policy Reform in South Africa
South Africa implemented the National Water Act (1998) and the Water Services Act (1997) to ensure that citizens have basic water needs met, to make water affordable, to control pollution, and to make water available for the maintenance of the aquatic environment.

Water rights were previously only held by large land-owners.
Summarize the case study: Environmental Policies in Economics in Transition
Former Soviet economies, such as Estonia and the Czech Republic, have changed to market economies. These countries had economies that relied on industries that pollute heavily, which caused barriers to the implementation of environmental policies. Environmental protections were not strictly enforced, so many areas became heavily polluted. Policies have now been implemented to bring pollution under control and many of these countries have had substantial remediation of stationary sources of pollution.
Summarize the case study: Control of Pollution across International Boundaries
Some environmental issues are global in scope and can't be confined to one area.

Issue 1: Greenhouse gas emissions - The New York Convention (1992) and the Kyoto Protocol (1997) are multilateral agreements that set international policies to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases.

Issue 2: Pollution - Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania have designed multinational agreements to control pollution in this region

Other issues: climate change, ozone layer depletion, loss of biodiversity, and radioactive emergencies
Summarize the case study: Industrialization of Rural China
Social, political, and economic barriers may restrict the implementation or prevent the enforcement of environmental policies, even if strong policies already exist in a country. For example, areas of China are shifting from agricultural economies to rapid industrialization. Awareness is increasing of the adverse consequences, but barriers still persist and environmental degradation is still a large issue in China.
Summarize the case study: Protecting the Rights of Children and Special and Vulnerable Populations
Groups who may be especially sensitive to environmental hazards include: children, people with genetic vulnerability, and minority groups. Efforts are under way to intervene, but more attention needs to be given. The US lacks policy to ensure that children are completely protected, African Americans often reside in urban areas with high levels of air pollution, and Native Americans live on sovereign lands with many environmental hazards.

The difference in effects of exposures on children versus adults is important for policymaking. Children in developed countries have long-term exposure to thousands of chemicals now, which may be contributing to the rise in chronic conditions. In less developed regions, children are exposed in areas of rapid industrialization.
CASE STUDY
What are 2 examples of alarming morbidities among children related to environmental health in more developed countries? What is each one associated with?
1. Asthma - outdoor pollution, indoor pollution, insect contamination

2. Lead poisoning - paint, leaded fuels (no longer in most developed countries)
CASE STUDY
What are 5 examples of alarming morbidities among children related to environmental health in less developed countries? What is each one associated with?
1. Smoke - wood used in home cooking and heating

2. Arsenic - groundwater

3. Pesticides

4. Lead - gasoline

5. Methyl isocyanate - chemical used in the manufacturing of pesticides (1984 incident: 40 tons of the gas was released in Bhopal, India; many fatalities)
CASE STUDY
Describe the lifecycle approach to identifying exposure pathways in children.
This approach looks at exposure pathways during the different stages of childhood based on child behaviors and susceptibilities in each life stage
CASE STUDY
LIFECYCLE APPROACH
What are the exposure pathways in the prenatal stage?
Developing fetus is very susceptible to effects of pollutants

Exposure can be transplacental or external
CASE STUDY
LIFECYCLE APPROACH
What are the exposure pathways in the neonatal stage (birth to < 3 months)?
Oral and dermal exposures: feeding, hand-to-mouth activity

Inhalation exposures: time spent sleeping, time spent in sedentary activities
CASE STUDY
LIFECYCLE APPROACH
What are the exposure pathways in the infant/crawler stage (3 to 12 months)?
Oral and dermal exposures: consumption of solid food, increased floor mobility, hand-to-mouth activity

Inhalation exposures: breathing close to floor, development of personal dust clouds
CASE STUDY
LIFECYCLE APPROACH
What are the exposure pathways in the toddler stage (1 to < 2 years)?
Oral and dermal exposures: consumption of range of solid foods, increased play activity and curiosity

Inhalation exposures: time spent sleeping, time spent in sedentary activities
CASE STUDY
LIFECYCLE APPROACH
What are the exposure pathways in the preschool stage (2 to < 6 years)?
Oral and dermal exposures: wearing adult-style clothing, decreased hand-to-mouth activities

Inhalation exposures: increased time spent outdoors
CASE STUDY
LIFECYCLE APPROACH
What are the exposure pathways in the school-age stage (6 to < 11 years)?
Oral and dermal exposures: decreased oral contact with hands and objects, decreased contact with surfaces

Inhalation exposures: time spent in school environment, participation in sports
Summarize the case study: The Built Environment
Built environment includes urban areas and structures constructed by humans, and it is dramatically increasing worldwide compared to rural environments. Policies for design of the built environment can have a great influence on public health, such as in land development, community design, and transportation patterns.
CASE STUDY
Give an example of a policy idea for the design of the built environment.
Adopt policies that stimulate people to walk more, bike, and/or use public transportation by colocating shopping centers, business facilities, and residences
What are some of the main US agencies responsible for environmental regulation?
US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS)
US REGULATORY AGENCIES
What are the duties and characteristics of the EPA?
CHARACTERISTICS
Leads the nation's environmental science, research, and education efforts
Mission is to protect human health and environment
Established in 1970
Employs 17,000 people in DC and 10 regional offices

DUTIES
Write regulations when Congress writes a law
Set national standards for states to enforce on their own
Help states if they fail to meet national standards
Enforce regulations
Help companies understand requirements
Give grants
Study environmental issues
Sponsor partnerships
Teach people about the environment
Publish information
US REGULATORY AGENCIES
What are the duties and characteristics of NIOSH?
CHARACTERISTICS
Mission is to generate new knowledge in the field of occupational safety and transfer that knowledge into practice for the betterment of workers
Created by Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970
Part of the CDC
1,200 employees in DC and a few other cities
Scientists from fields of epi, medicine, industrial hygiene, safety, psych, engineering, chem, stats, econ, and admin

DUTIES
Conduct research
Develop guidelines and recommendations
Disseminate information
Responds to requests for workplace health hazard evaluations
Translate knowledge into products and services (training videos, etc.)

DOES NOT DEVELOP REGULATIONS OR ENFORCE THEM. THAT IS OHSA TERRITORY
US REGULATORY AGENCIES
What are the duties and characteristics of the ATSDR?
CHARACTERISTICS
Mission is to use the best science, take responsive action, and provide trustworthy information to prevent and mitigate harmful exposures to toxic substances and related disease
Created by CERCLA/Superfund in 1980 and organized in 1985 after Love Canal in the 1970s and Methyl isocyanate gas cloud in India in 1984

DUTIES
Identify hazardous sites
Protect public from toxic exposures
Increase knowledge about toxic substances
Deliver health education about toxic chemicals
Maintain health registries
US REGULATORY AGENCIES
What are the duties and characteristics of NIEHS?
CHARACTERISTICS
One of the 27 Institutes/Centers of the NIH
Located in North Carolina at Research Triangle Park (unlike the other NIH institutes?)
Home of the National Toxicology Program (NTP)
Mission is to reduce burden of human illness and disability related to environment influences and the progression of human disease
Established in 1966

DUTIES
Test and evaluate agents in environment (NTP)
Develop new approaches to advance screening of chemicals (NTP)
Work to understand individual susceptibility (NTP)
Research
Give examples of state environmental agencies (other than Texas).
California
Air Resources Board (ARB) - reduction of air pollution
EPA
Integrated Waste Management Board
Energy Commission
Public Utilities Commission

New York
Dept. of Environmental Conservation
Public Service Commission

Michigan
Dept. of Natural Resources
Dept. of Environmental Quality
Air Quality Division
Environmental Science Board
What are some Texas environmental agencies?
Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ)
Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS)
Railroad Commission of Texas
TEXAS REGULATORY AGENCIES
What does the TCEQ do?
Permitting
Designated monitoring
Land, air, and water
TEXAS REGULATORY AGENCIES
How is DSHS involved in environmental health?
They have a Division of Regulatory Services that has environmental and consumer safety section that does inspections and monitoring, etc.
TEXAS REGULATORY AGENCIES
Does the Railroad Commission of Texas have jurisdiction over railroads?
NO.

"The Railroad Commission serves Texas through: our stewardship of natural resources and the environment; our concern for personal and community safety; and our support of enhanced development and economic vitality for the benefit of Texans."

Jurisdiction over oil, gas, etc.
Give an example of a local environmental agency and what they do.
California's City of Long Beach Dept. of Health and Human Services - operates an environmental health division and is responsible for water quality, hazardous materials management, food inspection, lead poisoning, housing quality, etc.
What are some of the main European agencies responsible for environmental regulation?
European Union (EU)
European Environment Agency (EEA)
EUROPEAN REGULATORY AGENCIES
What are the duties and characteristics of the EU?
CHARACTERISTICS
The EEA is an arm of the EU (in Denmark)

DUTIES
Supply info to 32 Euro countries on the environment (EEA)
Environmental laws
4 priority areas: climate change, nature and biodiversity, environment and health, and natural resources and waste
One of the initiators of the United Nations Environment Program
Participant in Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change
Member of international agreements and partnerships
Comprehensive system of environment protection in the EU (precautionary principle, polluter pays, sustainable development)
What is the main international agency responsible for environmental regulation?
World Health Organization (WHO)
GLOBAL REGULATORY AGENCIES
What are the duties and characteristics of the WHO?
CHARACTERISTICS
Regional Europe office = European Environment and Health Committee (EEHC)

DUTIES
Collaboration between environmental and health sectors (EEHC)
Brings representatives together from ministries, organizations, etc. (EEHC)
Promotion and advocacy by sharing experience and best practice (EEHC)
Building partnerships with a wide range of stakeholders (EEHC)
Global activities: pollution, children, EIA/HIA, climate change and human health, emergencies, quantifying impacts, and water quality
What is an environmental advocacy organization? Give a few examples.
They are organizations that help educate people and seek to mold public opinion to their position on topics. They often lobby at the local, state, and federal levels in support of environmental causes.

Examples: Greenpeace, Natural Resources Defense Council, National Wildlife Federation, The Nature Conservancy, Sierra Club, Union of Concerned Scientists
What are outlined as the major US environmental health laws?
Clean Air Act (1970)
Clean Water Act (1972)
Safe Drinking Water Act (1974)
National Environmental Policy Act (1969)
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (1996)
Toxic Substances Control Act (1976)
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (1980)
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1976)
Occupational Safety and Health Act (1970)
Endangered Species Act (1973)
MAJOR LAWS
What are the main points of the Clean Air Act (1970)?
Section 112: Regulates air emissions from stationary and mobile sources, was very basic at first but was broadened in the 1990 revised Act, establishes MACT standards

Authorizes EPA to establish National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), goal was to get NAAQS in every state by 1975, Act was amended in 1977 and again in 1990 because states were failing to meet the deadlines to get NAAQS
CLEAN AIR ACT
Define "MACT standards"
MACT standards = maximum achievable control technology standards; requires the establishment of emission standards that require the maximum degree of reduction for hazardous pollutants
MAJOR LAWS
What are the main points of the Clean Water Act (1972)?
Was previously the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (1948)
Became CWA with the 1977 amendments
Establishes basic structure for regulating pollutant discharge into US waters
Authorizes EPA to implement pollution control programs, such as setting wastewater standards
Set water quality standards for all contaminants in surface water
Made it unlawful for anyone to discharge pollutants into navigable waters without a permit
Funded construction of sewage treatment plants (construction grants program)
Recognized need for planning to address problems
CLEAN WATER ACT
Discuss the construction grants program amendments of 1981 and 1987.
1981 - streamlined the process, improved capabilities of treatment plants built under the program

1987 - phased out the construction grants program, replaced with State Water Pollution Control Revolving Fund (commonly known as Clean Water State Revolving Fund), this all addressed water quality needs by building on EPA-state partnerships
CLEAN WATER ACT
What other law changed parts of the CWA?
Title I of the Great Lakes Critical Programs Act (1990) - signed by US and Canada to reduce toxic pollutants in the Great Lakes, requires EPA to establish water quality criteria for the Great Lakes addressing 29 toxic pollutants with maximum levels that are safe for people and wildlife
MAJOR LAWS
What are the main points of the Safe Water Drinking Act (1974)?
Protect quality of drinking water in the US
Focuses on underground or above ground sources designed for drinking
Authorizes EPA to establish minimum standards to protect tap water
Requires all owners/operators of public water systems to comply with health-related (primary) standards
State governments are encouraged to attain nuisance-related (secondary) standards
EPA establishes minimum standards to protect underground sources from injection of fluids
SAFE WATER DRINKING ACT
Discuss the points of the 1996 amendment to the SWDA.
Consumer confidence reports - community water systems must prepare annual reports
Cost-benefit analysis - EPA must do an analysis for every new standard
Microbial contaminants and disinfection byproducts - EPA is required to strengthen protections for these, including Cryptosporidium
Operator certification - water system operators must be certified
Public information and consultation - consumers have a right to know about all aspects of their water
Small water systems - given special attention to make sure that they can comply
Source water assessment program - states must conduct an assessment of its sources of drinking water to identify potential sources of contamination and determine how susceptible the sources are to threats
MAJOR LAWS
What are the main points of the National Environmental Policy Act (1969)?
One of the first laws ever written that establishes the framework for protecting the environment
Ensure that all branches of government give proper consideration to the environment prior to taking any major federal action that affects the environment
Requires environmental and environmental impact assessments from all federal agencies
NEPA
What did Dr. Moore add about the National Environmental Policy Act (1969)?
It recognized "the profound impact of man's activity on the interrelations of all components of the natural environment" and "the critical importance of restoring and maintaining environmental quality to the overall welfare and development of man"
NEPA
What is the difference between an environmental assessment (EA) and an environmental impact assessment (EIA)?
Environmental assessment (EA) determines whether EIA is necessary

A finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) = no EIA needed

Alternatively, proceed with EIA resulting in completion of Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)
MAJOR LAWS
What are the main points of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (1996)?
Federal regulation of pesticide distribution, sale, and use
Pesticides must be registered with the EPA, and applicant must show that it "will not generally cause unreasonable adverse effects on the environment"
FIFRA
What is meant by "unreasonable adverse effects effects on the environment?"
1. any unreasonable risk to man or the environment, taking into account the economic, social, and environmental costs and benefits of the use of any pesticide

2. a human dietary risk from residues that result from a use of a pesticide in or on any food inconsistent with the standard under section 408 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act
MAJOR LAWS
What are the main points of the Toxic Substances Control Act (1976)?
Authorizes EPA to require reporting, record-keeping, testing requirements, and restrictions relating to chemical substances and mixtures
Substances that are excluded: pesticides, food, drugs, cosmetics, and some others
Addresses production, importation, use, and disposal of specific chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), asbestos, radon, and lead-based paint
Section 5: pre-manufacturing notification for new substances
New chemicals are placed in the TSCA inventory
TSCA
Does the Toxic Substances Control Act deal with "old" chemicals?
NO.

Chemicals that were in use by 1976 were "grandfathered" in and deemed "safe"
MAJOR LAWS
What are the main points of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (1980)?
AKA Superfund - provides finances to clean up uncontrolled or abandoned hazardous waste sites, spills, and other emergency releases of contaminants
Gives EPA power to seek out parties responsible and assure their cooperation in the cleanup, EPA will clean up if they cannot be identified or if they fail to comply
MAJOR LAWS
What are the main points of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1976)?
Gives EPA authority to control hazardous waste from "cradle-to-grave," including generation, transportation, treatment, storage, and disposal
Provides framework for management of non-hazardous solid wastes
RCRA
Discuss the major amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1976).
1984 amendments - HSWA or Hazardous and Solid Wastes Amendments - focused on waste minimization, phasing out of land disposal of wastes, corrective action for releases, increased authority for EPA, more stringent standards, underground storage tank program

1986 amendments - allowed EPA to address problems from underground tanks storing petroleum and other hazardous substances
MAJOR LAWS
What are the main points of the Occupational Safety and Health Act (1970)?
Created NIOSH for research and education of workplace safety and health
Created OSHA for enforcement of standards
MAJOR LAWS
What are the main points of the Endangered Species Act (1973)?
Program for conservation of threatened and endangered plants, animals, and their habitats
Implementation agencies: US Fish and Wildlife Service and NOAA Fisheries Service
Fish and Wildlife service maintains worldwide list of endangered species
Requires federal agencies to comply to make sure they don't jeopardize the existence of any of those species
Also prohibits "taking" any of the species, including plants
LEARNING OBJECTIVE #1
Describe key environmental health regulatory agencies at the international, national, state/provincial, and local levels
LEARNING OBJECTIVE #3
Discuss 5 major environmental laws that have been introduced within the past 10 years
LEARNING OBJECTIVE #4
Describe environmental policies designed to protect vulnerable groups
LEARNING OBJECTIVE #5
List the steps in the policy-making process
LEARNING OBJECTIVE #2
State 4 principals that guide environmental policy development
LEARNING OBJECTIVE #6
Understand Environmental Impact Assessment process
Dr. Moore's note on learning objectives
Emphasis on understanding role of federal agencies and major federal legislation enacted to protect the environment & populations living within that environment