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24 terms

Chemistry-Chapter 5

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electromagnetic radiation
a form of energy that exhibits wavelike behavior as it travels through space
wavelength
The shortest distance between equivalent points on a continuous wave; is usually expressed in meters, centimeters, or nanometers
frequency
the number of waves passing a given point per second
amplitude
the distance from the rest position to the crest or trough
electromagnetic spectrum
consists of all electromagnetic radiation, arranged according to increasing wavelength
quantum
The minimum amount of energy that can be gained or lost by an atom
planck's constant
h= 6.626 x 10^-34 J S
photoelectric effect
The emission of electrons from a material when light of certain frequencies shines on the surface of the material
photon
A particle of electromagnetic radiation that has zero rest mass and carries a quantum of energy
atomic emission spectrum
a set of frequencies of electromagnetic waves given off by atoms of an element; consists of a series of fine lines of individual colors
ground state
the lowest energy state of an atom
de Broglie equation
predicts that all moving particles have wave characteristics and relates each particle's wavelength to its frequency, its mass, and Planck's constant
Heisenberg uncertainty priniple
States that it is fundamentally impossible to know precisely both th e velocity and position of a particle at the same time.
quantum mechanical model of the atom
an atomic model in which electrons are treated as waves; also called the wave mechanical model of the atom.
atomic orbital
A three-dimensional region around the nucleus of an atom that describes an electron's probable location
principal quantum number
indicates the relative size and energy of atomic orbitals, written as n
principal enery level
c
energy sublevel
the energy levels contained within a principle energy level.
electron configuration
the arrangement of electrons in an atom
aufbau principle
an electron occupies the lowest energy orbital that is available
Hund's rule
c
Valence electron
An electron in the outermost electron shell.
electron-dot-structure
c
Pauli exclusion prinicple
an atomic orbital may describe at most two electrons