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protective sac of tissue that surrounds the heart

the central organ of the cardiovascular system

the heart


thick layer of muscle in heart


separates the heart vertically into 2 sides


upper chamber that receives blood; pumps to ventricle


lower chamber that receives blood from atrium; pumps blood out of heart


flaps of tissue that control the flow of fluid

tricuspid valve location

right side of heart

bicuspid (mitral) valve location

left side

function of semilunar valves

prevent back flow of blood into ventricles

back flow against AV valves creates the...

"lub" sound

back flow against the SL valves creates the...

"dup" sound

heart murmur

a defect in the valves of the heart allowing some back flow of blood

closed circulatory system

a circulatory system where blood is contained within the heart or blood vessels

carry blood away from the heart


only artery that carries oxygen poor blood

pulmonary artery

smallest blood vessel
vessel all diffusion takes place
slowest moving blood


blood pressure

the force created by the heart pumping blood through vessels


rhythmic stretching of arteries

ventricle contraction increases pressure

systolic pressure

relaxation of the heart

diastole (diastolic pressure)


high blood pressure


sticky, straw- colored fluid (90% water), includes metabolites, nutrients, gases, hormones, wastes, salts, and proteins

only liquid tissue


site of gas exchange in lungs


walls of alveoli

one cell thick

the pulmonary circuit

carries blood between the heart and gas-exchange tissues

coronary circulation

systemic circulation that supplies blood to the heart itself

systemic circulation

carries blood to the heart and rest of the body

lowest pressured vessel


vessel with greatest cross section (slowest)


diameter of arteries are controlled by...


pressure and velocity are highest in which vessel?

aorta and arteries

capillaries are made of...

epithelial cells

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